Saturday, August 31, 2019

Posthorn Corporation Essay

Posthorn Corporation acquired 20,000 of the 100,000 outstanding common shares of Stamp Company on January 1, 2010, for a cash consideration of $200,000 at a time when its shareholders’ equity amounted to $1,000,000. The shares of both companies were traded on the national stock exchange. During 2010, Stamp Company had net income of $120,000 and paid dividends of $80,000. At the end of 2010, shares of Stamp Company were trading for $11 each. During 2011, Stamp Company had a loss of $60,000 and paid dividends of $40,000. Income for the first half of the year was $80,000 and the loss in the second half of the year was $140,000. The dividends were paid on June 30. On July 2, 2011, Posthorn Corporation sold 5,000 shares of Stamp Company for a consideration of $12 per share. At the end of 2011, the share price of Stamp Company had fallen to $6 per share. The average of market analysts’ forecasts was that the share price could be expected to rise to $8 per share over the next five years. Posthorn Corporation has not elected early adoption of the new standards for financial instruments which become effective on January 1, 2015. Required: For each of the following independent assumptions, state the amounts that Posthorn Corporation would include in its 2011 financial statements, with respect to its investment in Stamp Company for (i) its investment in Stamp Company; (ii) net income; and (iii) other comprehensive income. a) Posthorn Corporation accounts for its investment in Stamp Company as a fair value through profit and loss investment; b) Posthorn Corporation accounts for its investment in Stamp Company as an available for sale investment; c) Posthorn Corporation accounts for its investment in Stamp Company as a significant influence investment; d) Posthorn Corporation accounts for its investment in Stamp Company using the cost method. Required: a) Assume that the number of shares held by Blake is enough to give it significant influence over Stergis. Prepare all the journal entries that Blake should make regarding this investment in Year 5 and Year 6. b) Assume that Blake uses the cost method to account for its investment. Prepare all the journal entries that Blake should make regarding this investment in Year 5 and Year 6. Question 3 (15 marks) (Text, Chapter 2, Case 4) On January 1, Year 6, Progress Technologies Inc. acquired 40 percent (10,000 shares) of the voting shares of the Calgana Corp. Toward the end of Year 6, it seemed likely that Progress would have earnings for the year of approximately $10,000 (exclusive of earnings attributed to its investment in Calgana) and that Calgana would have earnings of approximately $50,000. The CEO of Progress was disappointed in the forecast earnings of both companies. Prior to Year 6, Progress had increased its earnings by 10 percent each year, and Progress would have to report total earnings in Year 6 of $45,000 if the trend was to continue. Required: a) Suppose Progress Technologies Inc. reports its interest in Calgana Corp. using the equity method. i) If Calgana is to declare its usual dividend of $0.50 per share, what would be the total reported income of Progress? ii) The CEO of Progress suggested that Calgana be directed to declare a special dividend of $3 per share. What impact would the additional dividend have on the reported earnings of Progress? b) Suppose that Progress Technologies Inc. reports its investment in Calgana Corp. using the cost method. iii) What would be the total reported earnings of Progress if Calgana declared its regular dividend of $0.50 per share? iv) What impact would the additional dividend of $3 per share have on reported earnings of Progress? c) Explain fully why the equity method (rather than the cost method) is appropriate for firms that can exert significant influence over other companies in which they have an interest.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Crimes of the Heart: A Case Study on Cardiac Anatomy Essay

Tiffany is worried about her newborn son. Ever since she brought Caleb home from the hospital it has been so hard to get him to eat and he seems to be breathing too hard all the time. At his one month check-up, the nurse tells her that Caleb has only gained one pound since he was born and Tiffany breaks into tears. Dr. Baker checks over Caleb in the exam room, taking extra time feeling and listening to his chest. After the exam Dr. Baker says, â€Å"When I listen to Caleb’s heart I hear an extra sound called a murmur. I want to use an echocardiogram and an ECG to get a good picture of all the parts of his heart.† After a full day of tests, Tiffany meets with Dr. Baker in his office. He explains, â€Å"After a careful review of all the information, I have discovered that Caleb has a hole in the heart muscle wall between his right and left ventricles. We call it a ventricular septal defect. That is probably why he has been so irritable and hard to feed. The hole is not very big, but he will still need to have surgery to repair it.† Although the thought of her tiny son having surgery is terrifying, Tiffany is relieved to know why things have been so tough at home. Short Answer Questions: 1. Caleb has abnormal heart sounds that tipped the doctor off to a problem. a. Name the normal sounds of the heart and indicate what causes these sounds. The two major sounds that are heard in a normal heart beat sound like â€Å"lub dub†. The â€Å"lub† is the first heart sound, commonly termed S1, and is caused by turbulence caused by the closure of mitral and tricuspid valves at the start of systole. The second sound, â€Å"dub† or S2, is caused by the closure of aortic and pulmonic valves, marking the end of systole. (STETHOGRAPHICS.COM) b. In relation to the normal heart sounds, when would you expect to hear the abnormal sound Dr. Baker heard? Explain your answer. When a valve is stenotic or damaged, the abnormal turbulent flow of blood produces a murmur  which can be heard during the normally quiet times of systole or diastole. (MED.UCLA.EDU). In relation to the systole and the diastole a murmur can be detected between the quiet times between the two. Normally, a murmur is a blowing, whooshing, or rasping sound heard during a heartbeat. (NIH.GOV)That is what Dr.Baker probably heard when doing the examination. 2. The defect in Caleb’s heart allows blood to mix between the two ventricular chambers. Due to this defect would you expect the blood to move from left-to-right ventricle or right-to-left ventricle during systole? Explain your answer based on blood pressure and resistance in the heart and great vessels. It goes left to right during systole. The difference is normally, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns to the right atrium from the body, travels to the right ventricle, and then is pumped into the lungs where it receives oxygen. Oxygen-rich (red) blood returns to the left atrium from the lungs, passes into the left ventricle, and then is pumped out to the body through the aorta. But when an infant has ventricular septal defect it still allows oxygen-rich (red) blood to pass from the left ventricle, through the opening in the septum, and then mix with oxygen-poor (blue) blood in the right ventricle. (ROCHESTER.EDU) but instead when systole occurs the blood gets mixed because of the septum therefore heart needs to pump harder to ensure that enough blood with oxygen reaches the body. 3. When an echocardiogram is performed, the technician color-codes oxygenated blood (red) and deoxygenated blood (blue). a. In a healthy baby, what color would the blood be within the right and left ventricles, respectively? Right ventricle: deoxygenated (blue), Left ventricle: oxygenated (red) b. In Caleb’s heart, what color would the blood be within the right and left ventricles, respectively? Left ventricle: oxygenated (red). Right ventricle: will have mixed blood so it will be red and blue because the opening between the two ventricles has an effect similar to a connection between the atria: When the more powerful left ventricle beats, it ejects blood into the right ventricle and pulmonary circuit. (A&P book pg. 677) 4. What happens to Caleb’s systemic cardiac output as a result of his  ventricular septal defect (VSD)? Explain your answer. Caleb will produce lower cardiac output because a left-to-right shunt at the ventricular level reduces LV output by the amount of the shunt because of this the body’s compensatory mechanisms will increase intravascular volume because of this lowered cardiac output until LV end-diastolic volume is sufficient to pump both a normal cardiac output and the proportionate left-to-right shunt. (AHAJOURNALS.ORG) 5. Based on the location of Caleb’s defect, what part of the conduction system might be at risk for abnormalities? Well since Caleb has a hole in his heart muscle wall these parts of the conduction system might be at risk for abnormalities the SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers. (NIH.GOV 2) WORKS CITED STETHOGRAPHICS.COM http://www.stethographics.com/main/physiology_hs_introduction.html MED.UCLA.EDU https://www.med.ucla.edu/wilkes/Physiology.htm NIH.GOV http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003266.htm A&P book pg. 677 ROCHESTER.EDU http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?ContentTypeID=90&ContentID=P01829 NIH.GOV 2 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/anatomyvideos/000021.htm AHAJOURNALS.ORG

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Courage Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Courage - Term Paper Example I believe Aristotle states that it is important for people to display courageous traits. However, these courageous traits must not inhibit a person’s general morality. For example, one may choose to balance his/her feelings of confidence and those of fear. He/she chooses whether to be afraid of diverse things in their lives. Therefore, a courageous individual is one who chooses to fear such things as beauty, which cannot compromise morality. In addition, courage enables individuals to avoid evil since it informs their abilities to make right decisions (Aristotle & Ross, 2009). Aristotle suggests that bravery involves an individual’s actions to fear evil for a good cause. For instance, a person may display resistance to the act of theft because it is immoral to steal. However, this resistance to steal will only qualify to be courageous depending on the reason for refusal. If the individual refuses to steal because he/she is afraid of the extreme punitive measures, then that is not courage. This is because the individual fears for wrong reasons, which are immoral in themselves according to Aristotle. However, if the individual fears the evil of stealing then he is courageous because he fears a significant thing (Aristotle & Ross, 2009). In addition, Aristotle account on fear suggests that courage is not influential because individuals with courage do not need further encouragement. Instead, these courageous persons display their fears of various graceful things on their own. Moreover, courage is evident when people display it in circumstances, which others have failed. In particular, it is indeed courageous for individuals to display their respective fears because they want to achieve a beautiful thing or a certain good for humanity. Finally, Aristotle suggests that courageous individuals do not fear such things as death because they understand

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Returning to the Trenches 1914 by C.R.W. Nevinson Essay

Returning to the Trenches 1914 by C.R.W. Nevinson - Essay Example While in the process of recovering he made several paintings based on his wartime experience with the army in France. In his own words, he confirms to have seen the Great War as an event that was so tragic. Nevinson still made the argument that the only way to express violence, brutality and the crude form is to use the futuristic technique. This technique is used to express emotions that appear in battle fields in Europe. This is clearly seen through his painting called, Returning to the Trenches, which he painted concerning the Western Front. One of its critics, P.G. Konody on the 14th March 1915 noted that â€Å"returning to the trenches† is rather a different but interesting picture where he found an extreme formula for the rhythm of a marching body, which is of a French infantry man who is armed fully. Shown first during the Galleries exhibition in Leicester the year 1916, Returning to the Trenches was among Nevinson’s paintings of the Great War that are recognized immediately. The futurism language that the artist proclaimed prior to 1914 is clearly carried in the image of the column of marching French soldiers together with the recurring pattern of the soldier’s legs and the exaggeration and animation of their movements by the extended force lines.2 The use of such manner by Nevinson, however, becomes more powerful in the monochrome of etching by combining the experimental techniques used to express movement with a great emotive subject. This kind of combination is able to simultaneously suggest.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

H.H. Holmes Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

H.H. Holmes - Case Study Example The second floor of the castle consisted of sinister guest rooms equipped with trap doors, peepholes, chutes leading to the basement, and moving walls. The chutes led to either a vat of quicklime or acid, or to the incinerator. The rooms were fire resistant padded with asbestos lining (Larson 4). Holmes is known to have committed most of the murders he allegedly was responsible for in the hotel. It was confirmed that Holmes actually committed four murders while he made confession of having committed twenty-seven. It is speculated that he may have committed as many as two hundred murders. Some of his victims were taken from the World’s Fair, which took place about two miles away from his hotel. Holmes is reported to have killed his victims either by pumping poisonous gas into the rooms as guests slept or by poisoning them with chloroform after sneaking into their rooms through the trap doors as they slept. He disposed the bodies by carrying them to the chutes. Apart from the gu est rooms, the Castle had a torture room equipped with an elasticity determinator, which he used to stretch his victims to death (Schechter 13). In a jewelry store on the first floor of the castle, Holmes employed a man as the manager. According to Ramsland, the man had a wife, about six feet tall. She ended up having an affair with Holmes that led to divorce from her husband. She later got pregnant and was convinced by Holmes to have an abortion. Holmes offered to perform the abortion. Later on, Holmes sold a six-foot tall skeleton of a woman for $200 to Hahnemann Medical College. In another incident, a woman named Emmaline Cigrand fell in love with Holmes. They arranged for a marriage; however, Holmes suffocated her to death in a vault, in the Castle, on the day the marriage ceremony was expected to take place (Schechter 37). After a case of murder that had occurred in Philadelphia in 1894 was discovered, the case of Holmes started developing. The police were informed of a scam th at had recently occurred by Marion Hedgepeth, who had once shared a cell with a man named H. M. Howard, and had given Howard the name of an attorney to assist in committing an insurance fraud. The scam involved another man called Benjamin Pitezel, who was assisted by Holmes to get a $10000 life insurance cover from Fidelity Mutual Association in Chicago; and would later fake his own death in an explosion in the laboratory in order to claim insurance compensation. Holmes had informed Pitezel that they would use a cadaver to fake the death. Holmes tricked his accomplice into heavy drinking before soaking him in benzene and burning him to death. He then extinguished the fire and poured chloroform into the stomach of Pitezel’s body. Holmes then altered the scene to create an impression that the death had been caused by an accidental explosion (Geyer 63). In order to collect the money from insurance compensation, there was required a family member to identify the body. Since Pitez el’s wife was sick, Holmes took his daughter for the task. Pitezel’s wife was unaware of her husband’s death. The money was to be shared among several participants in the scam, including Hedgepeth, but Howard schemed and made off with the money. A detailed letter written by Hedgepeth about the scam was passed on to the insurance company, where it was realized that the Howard in question was actually Holmes. Hedgepeth offered the

Monday, August 26, 2019

Reflection of Liquid Based Cytology Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Reflection of Liquid Based Cytology - Case Study Example The frameworks make the process of reflection easy. There are many frameworks.   Gibbs model is a reflective cycle which is a straightforward and recognized framework for reflection wherein it enables clear description of the situation of the patient, the analysis of feelings, evaluation of the experience, analysis to make sense of the experience, conclusion where other points are considered and reflection upon experience to examine what you would do if situation arose again. Description of the situation involves recollection of the condition of the patient, the signs and symptoms, and the initial evaluation parameters when the patient got admitted. Analysis of feelings involves evaluation of the feelings of the nurse towards the patient and also the feelings of the patient during the course of treatment. Evaluation of experience involves evaluation of the negative and positive actions of the nurse at that particular situation. The analysis involves evaluation of the impact of the actions of oneself on the condition of the patient, whether the actions cause improvement or deterioration of the condition of the patient. 40-year-old Lucy (Name changed due to confidentiality reasons according to NMC code) was referred for cervical cancer screening. Lucy apparently had no health problems. She was the mother of 3 children. She was accompanied by her husband. Lucy was apprehensive and nervous about the procedure.  She had many doubts regarding the test. She asked me whether the test had any side effects, what were the benefits of the test, whether the test was fail-safe and as to what would be the next step in case the results were abnormal.     Ã‚  

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Racism As Social Phenomenon Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Racism As Social Phenomenon - Essay Example Likewise, Muslims are always biased against Christians and occasions of Islamic groups killing Christians based on religious difference have been reported in several parts of the continent. In addition, for racism to take place certain elements have to be involved and they include actions which are considered to be arbitrary and harmful towards one or a group (Fluehr-Lobban, 2005). A good example is Muslims killing or causing bodily harm to the Christian faithful. Secondly, there is a belief that one race is superior to the other. A good example of this was that both the Germans and Britons thought that they were superior more than the other. Thirdly, the belief in separation which can be easily identified and a good example of this is that Muslims and Christians use two different religious books the Quran and the Bible respectively and lastly the possession of power by the superior race and a good example of this is that Africans were discriminated as they were living in lands which were not theirs or lands belonging to the white men. However, prejudice based on attitude cannot be considered to be racism unless an action is taken to support the prejudice held by a group towards the other it is not considered racism. This action may be harmful to either of the groups depending on the amount of power wielded by either of the group. In the end, the group which always has the most powers is always the one which wins on racism hence becoming the perpetrators of racism. A good example is that when a Christian applies to rent an apartment owned by a Muslim, and the Muslim hates all Christians generally but treats his Christian tenant with dignity and respect then the act is considered to be prejudice.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Platos view of a perfect world Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 25

Platos view of a perfect world - Essay Example On the contrary, I think its’ very far from being Utopia. But what is Utopia? I would think that it is a world where there are peace and love among all men. But according to Plato’s The Republic, he considered a perfect state to have two things: the perfect man and the perfect justice. A perfect world cannot exist if the people that consist it are flawed. I must agree albeit hesitantly because come to think of it, the world is nothing but the sum of the people which consist it. Hence, to make a perfect world, the men that form it must be perfect as well. Although we have come a long way since our barbarian ancestors, we are not perfect still. According to Charles Darwin, men may have noble qualities and god-like intelligence and yet â€Å"men still bears in his bodily frame the inedible stamp of his lowly origin.† Since it is our body that limits us and prevents us from being perfect, Plato has suggested in The Republic that in the modern world, sickly and deformed children are segregated and put to death so they don’t contaminate nor burden the rest. They are flawed, and there is no room for flaws in a perfect world. Plato suggested that in a perfect world, there is unity among men and they are one with the state. Men cease to be mere individuals and instead they are seen as members of the state. I agree with this line of thinking because if men today would think this way, they would hesitate before doing harm to another because if they injure another, they injure the State. And in a way, they injure themselves. However, to attain this oneness with the State, Plato suggests communal property under the control of the state. Likewise, it suggests that the State rears the children without parents knowing their offspring. All of these are aimed to prevent accumulation of wealth, brains, beauty and other qualities of birth. Again, I must agree with this line of thinking.

Friday, August 23, 2019

English 105 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

English 105 - Essay Example se people require, it would also be great to spread awareness and to let other people know about their plight so that they can come forward and help them, it is an arduous task but someone has to take an initiative and drive other people forward so that they work in unison and improve the overall living conditions in Africa. It is really a surprise to me that the world has made so much progress yet many people continue to live far below the poverty line, this disparity has to be eliminated and it is really important for the other people to understand this and they will also work towards eliminating this disparity once they understand how important it is to restore parity in the society. â€Å"Drought is a recurrent phenomenon in the semiarid regions of Africa. The first showers of the rainy season usually follow a long dry season, during which the soil becomes thoroughly dried out.† (M. Eugene, P. 8) Africa is hit badly by other factors also and even this needs to be sorted out, the climate experts should intervene and suggest solutions to these natural problems that are being faced by several people in Africa. â€Å"Malnutrition is a major health problem, especially in developing countries. Water supply, sanitation and hygiene, given their direct impact on infectious disease, especially diarrhea, are important for preventing malnutrition. Both malnutrition and inadequate water supply and sanitation are linked to poverty. The impact of repeated or persistent diarrhea on nutrition-related poverty and the effect of malnutrition on susceptibility to infectious diarrhea are reinforcing elements of the same vicious circle, especially amongst children in developing countries.† (WHO) Malnutrition remains another huge problem, the final paper will also reveal some very important statistics and it will also aim at providing solutions to these ever growing problems. The most important aim would be to make the people who are living in ideal conditions understand the plight

Marketing Approaches for Overcoming Increased Competition in the UK Assignment

Marketing Approaches for Overcoming Increased Competition in the UK Hotel Industry - Assignment Example However, in practice, problems are likely to appear when having to apply the market principles related to competition. The challenges set can be many, mostly related to the lack of effective marketing policies for ensuring the equal promotion of firms within each one of the market’s industries. At this point, the identification of the characteristics of the marketing environment is considered as critical in order to understand the needs of industries and organizations and to develop valid assumptions regarding the measures required for protecting competition. In accordance with Dibb and Simkin (2001) the marketing environment can be characterized as ‘those external trading forces that directly or indirectly influence and organization’s acquisitions of inputs and generation of outputs’ (Dibb and Simkin 2001, p.199). The marketing approaches appropriate for managing the increasing competition in a specific sector, the hotel industry, of the UK market, are rev iewed in this paper. Reference is made to the characteristics of the marketing environment, as described above, but also to the differentiation of competition, compared to the past, as mostly resulted by the high development of technology worldwide. The current status of the hotel industry in UK is also described aiming to show the ways in which marketing could help the industry’s firms to face competition, which seems to be continuously increased. It is made clear that marketing can highly support firms in the hotel industry against competition. However, it is necessary for the relevant plans to be designed and promoted using particular criteria, which are analytically presented below. 2. Hotel industry in UK 2.1 Characteristics and trends Hotel industry is one of the most important sectors of UK market. In accordance with Seaton and Bennett (1996) the strength of the industry can be related to its flexibility, meaning the availability of a wide range of rooms covering the n eeds of all visitors. It is also noted that ‘short – stay bookings’ (Seaton and Bennett 1996, p.315) which result to an important part of the industry’s profits, are carefully planned in hotels across UK ensuring that short-term visitors, which are most visitors in UK, are fully satisfied with the accommodation services provided across UK. In terms of marketing, reference should be made to the different approaches used by managers of hotels in UK in order to promote their enterprise. In this context, hotel groups are likely to emphasize on ‘brand through brochures’ (Seaton and Bennett 1996, p.315); on the other hand, ‘independent hoteliers tend to use price and market destination techniques’ (Seaton and Bennett 1996, p.315). The performance of the industry can be characterized as rather disappointing. In accordance with a recent report, in 2009, firms in the particular industry had ‘to freeze recruitment at a percentage of 2 5%’ (Prospects 2009); another 24% of firms in this industry have ‘cancelled their plans to employee new staff’ (Prospects 2009). The performance of the UK hotels from 2003 up to 2009 is presented in Graph 1, Appendix. Despite the market pressures, ‘106 new hotels (with a capacity of 11,800 rooms) opened in 2011’

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Measuring Respect Essay Example for Free

Measuring Respect Essay Campbell-Ewald, an award winning integrated communications agency, noticed that their customer relationship management (CRM) solutions were not meeting the expectations that they should. In order to gain an understanding of how respect influences customer loyalty and purchasing, they team up with a research company, Synovate and developed three different surveys. The surveys consisted of 27 to 29 attitudinal statements that customer use a 5-point scale to rate. They statements were designed to measure how the customers defined respect and how important respect was in determining a purchase. They selected more than 5,000 customers from each business sectors: insurance, automotive, and retail, and mailed them the survey to complete. The customers they selected to survey were adults at least 18 years of age (Cooper Schindler, 2011). Once they had received the completed surveys they analyzed the results. They then used the results to validate the relevance of its five â€Å"People Principles†. The five â€Å"People Principles† were: ? Appreciate me ?Intentions don’t matter; actions do ?Listen; then you’ll know what I said. ?It’s about me, not about you. ?Admit it- you goofed! These five â€Å"People Principles† have helped companies like General Motors, Continental Airlines, and Farmers Insurance incorporate respectful behaviors into their business operations (Cooper Schindler, 2011). When Campbell-Ewald and Synovate developed the surveys they knew that they needed to address respect from all areas such as how a customer ranks respect to loyalty, respect to purchases, respect to continue purchases, and respect to referrals. By gaining a complete overview on how a customer reviews respect then they could develop the five â€Å"People Principles† that their clients could use to improve customer service, increase revenue, gain a competitive advantage, and build a thriving business. Campbell-Ewald knew that their research, findings, and developments would be what would make them successful. By using the numerical scale survey they were placing the same standards on all statements, which make the evaluation process easier. When conducting a survey, the more customers you select to survey will increase the number of responses that a research company will receive back. It is not likely that all 5000 customers responded but I am sure well over 50 percent responded, which gave them a diverse poll of responses. Whereas, if they had chose to survey only 100 customers then they may have received only 30 responses, which is not enough when conducting such research. Using the numerical scale makes tally and measuring the result easier, which will make the comparison easier. Also, by using the numerical scale a research firm eliminates the opportunity for researchers to be swayed by a person comments or opinions, a person either agrees or does not agree with no explanation.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Impact of Immigration in America

Impact of Immigration in America Brach Hadean Immigration in America The most vital and maybe special historic components adding to the personality for the US system is the range of backgrounds from where the nation’s resident come. Immigrants from nearly every spot associated within the globe have actually been determined enough to leave their particular ancestral houses and work out a brand new life in the US. Except for the American Indian, Eskimos and local Hawaiians, every American is both an immigrant or a descendant of immigrants. The circulation of individuals to what is today the United States Of America started in the the sixteenth century. Information technology proceeded mostly unrestricted until 1921, till congress enacted legislation establishing quotas for the wide range of the individuals that could enter the United States Of America. Most importantly, this continuing immigration made a great and remarkable jump in populace in the United States Of America. However, the influence of immigration and the growth of the United States Of America goes far beyond its influence on the dimensions of the population. The wave of immigrants that started to enlarge within the 1840s and crested at the conclusion of nineteenth century made feasible the impressive commercial and industrial development of the United States Of America, as well as territorial development. Another influence function of US immigration happens to be the ethic, financial and spiritual range associated with immigrants. Various other countries can track their particular development to size influxes of immigrants. Circumstances overseas as well as in the United States Of America triggered these individuals to show up here in great waves. Nearly all African immigrants arrived prior the Civil War, but unlike most various other immigrants, they didn’t come by their own accord. Chinese workers, recruited to aid creation of the railroads, set roots in huge numbers in the western Coast within the 1850s and 1860s. A lot of men and women from north and west Europe emerged before 1880. At the conclusion of the nineteenth and start of the 20th century, various others from Southern, Eastern and Central Europe came in bigger quantities for a number of years. Hungarians and Cubans have actually fled their particular homelands to escape communist regimes. Politics and Immigration The cultural range made possible by immigration in the United States Of America has enriched US songs, literary works, art, etc. This has additionally had an apparent influence on the United States political system. The most significant facets for the US for many immigrants happens to be a practically endless chances to take part in the American community despite their particular novice standing. After five year’s of good standing residence together with the passing of a number of exams in the concepts of federal government and legislation in the US, any person may become a US resident. The needs and requirements of the naturalized residents have actually supplied inputs for the United states political system. Once the wide range of possible immigrant voters increased, politicians started looking for techniques to win their particular electoral assistance. One particularly efficient means would be to spend even more effort looking into the happenings in nations from where huge figures of immigrants had come. In an effort to charm brand new voters throughout the nineteenth century, the nations government started to support issues associated with certain circumstances in various other nations. The Emergence of Ethnic Politics Much more essential, had been the influence of immigrant groups in the United states governmental system as they became involved in the government procedure. Many of these immigrants were indeed peasant farmers from their particular country of origin . They had little to no formal training education in crafts, investments or careers. The very first immigrants attracted from many nations had been in most cases apathetic and highly dubious of politics, and they regarded this a regulating device. It was in the nations hubs of towns and cities that the immigrants initially became linked with politics. Sooner or later they became linked, mastering all that politics could offer their particular passion by assisting to supply them with tasks and neighborhood solutions. They discovered furthermore that politics supplied networks of development for the highly motivated people in the immigrant group, which discovered their particular place in the government it self, either becoming a frontrunn ers or serving frontrunners on their own. Numerous immigrants shortly discovered that, when they ran for a particular office, they could bring in a considerable wide range of ballots from member of votes from people in their particular immigrant collective. As immigrants made up bigger and bigger levels of voters within the metropolitan areas, they became more and more effective in electing their particular people to general public positions. The immigrant politician tried to discover tasks for people in their own cultural group. Just as crucial, he aided them withe guidelines, legislation and obligations of citizenship in positions where in the vocabulary ended up being unknown and hard to learn. In return for these favors, the immigrant voters added to continued governmental help. This design, which appeared in the last half of the nineteenth century, profoundly affected the nature associated with the US governmental system. The design ended up being private and individual instead of focused toward wide problems of general public plan. Certainly, it had been focused toward getting the financial protection of immigrants in a realm of uncertainly. No matter what appeal might be presented to immigrants to become part of the modern or maj or governmental movements, the device that opened the doors to immigrants ensured their loyalty because of the opportunity originally given. Immigrants thus never ever became an essential power in reform politics. The very early individualistic and personal direction of immigrant politics ended up being changed with 2nd and 3rd generation immigrants. Politics based on favors started steadily to minimize as second-generation immigrants at the conclusion of the nineteenth century reacted to the increasing failure of urban area employers to provide all their particular requirements. Second generation immigrants had additionally an even more extended consciousness of this opportunities of politics than their particular forebears. The cultural groups within the urban centers started to join modern and liberal governmental motions and by the time the New Deal contract came into existence in the 1930s they constituted a crucial base of help for the democratic party. Cultural Politics and American Pluralism Possibly, one of the most essential results of immigration in American governmental life happens to be the extension of ethic identification in American politics. This respect to nationwide beginnings is of good relevance whenever a possible prospect is selected for public office. Additionally, it influences the casting of ballots, the framing of problems, the filling of community tasks and a lot of other issues in the government. The continuation of ethic identification is particularly significant because it reinforces the pluralistic personality associated with the United states political system. It adds to the complexity of causes affecting the tasks of federal government and it will help to make sure that governmental aid is going to be extensively provided. Since there are incredibly numerous ethic distinctions, no one group is in a position to obtain control of the equipment necessary for control of the US federal government. In spite of the perseverance in maintaining ethic identification, many ethic groups have grown to be adequately assimilated into American culture to subordinate this identification for their identification as US citizens. This is because of the capacity regarding the governmental portions of this culture to take the newcomers into the governmental and social procedure. The Ebony in the American Situation Unlike various other ethic groups, black American, whove been here prior to the creation associated with the republic, havent been in a position to take part completely in the government. Despite their expertise aided by the vocabulary or their typical values with bulk of People in America, they are held outside the framework of the United states culture. Rules, statutes and customs had been piled against them, preventing them from voting, from equal education and the right to live in an area of their choosing if affordable. Even after reformation, numerous blacks continue to be annoyed at their particular incapacity to play a role in the inputs of governmental system. They think there are no particular officials through who they may be able channel their needs or who can express their issues adequately. Some black colored individuals believe that aggression and violence may be their only way to counteract this ineffectiveness within the governmental system. Cultural variety can be both a benifit and a hindrance. In a lot of instances, it has a tendency to deteriorate and prevent a person or group from obtaining control, therefore permitting most of the groups to take part in the democratic processes. Conversely, like in the scenario of black colored United states, whenever any solitary group is not incorporated into the procedure, the democratic beliefs are not satisfied. Altering Patterns of Immigration In the past years remarkable modifications have actually taken hold within the diverse populace of immigrants who are assimilating into America. Whereas within the past, many immigrants arrived from Northern Europe, nowadays practically one 3rd of all of the immigrants come from Asia. This development reflects an improvement in the immigration legislation in 1965, that Eastern Hemisphere and Europeans nations are placed on equivalent ground; not more than 20,000 immigrants per 12 months from each nation are permitted to enter the United States Of America. Of certain importance would be the fact that immigrants these days are attracted through the elites of the local nations, instead of through the lower classes. It has triggered a mind drain who has badly crippled a lot of Asian nations. The issue of Illegal Aliens By the conclusion of the 1970s the United States Of America had been confronted using the uncommon issue of coping with millions of unlawful aliens. Its impossible to acquire a precise count of illegal immigrants, the Immigration and Naturalization division places the cumulative figure at 6 to 8 million. The issue is especially in the Southwest, in which happens to be an apparent intrusion of Mexicans, looking to escape the extensive impoverishment in their own personal nation. It was projected that huge numbers of unlawful Mexicans cross the country’s borders looking for employment, that a few of the United states companies provide due to the lower wages. The issue of illegal aliens reflect change in the immigration plan that today significantly restrict immigration. Whereas previous immigrants established the anchor for the current work force and the literal feeling they created a great deal of America, the descendants regarding the initial immigrants today start to see the increase of individuals from overseas as a risk for their jobs in a nation of lower than filled national employment. Sources http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_immigration_to_the_United_States http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_to_the_United_States http://www.history.com/topics/u-s-immigration-before-1965 http://www.inmotionaame.org/home.cfm;jsessionid=f8302211001397524805099?bhcp=1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Migration_(African_American) http://www.sparknotes.com/us-government-and-politics/american-government/american-political-culture/section2.rhtml

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

A Postmodernist View Of International Relations Politics Essay

A Postmodernist View Of International Relations Politics Essay Some scholars argue that alternative approaches to IR theory have not made any significant contributions to the theorization of IR. Moreover, these approaches lead our IR theory into disorder and we are left with a lack of direction. However, focusing on Postmodernism, we find it has produced the idea of the power-knowledge relationship to criticize the absolute truth which is proposed by Positivism, and also provides us with different methodologies such as genealogy, text, narrative, discourse, deconstruction and double reading to explain world politics. Besides, Postmodernism has utilized a variety of methods such as deconstruction of text to overcome the theories and concepts that people believe (Der Derian and Shapiro, 1989). In the past international theory has been dominated by four main theories: Realism, Liberalism, Marxism and Constructivism. However, in the last two decades there has been a dramatic change to this picture. A range of new approaches has developed to aid understanding of world politics. In the context of globalization, even Realism seems inadequate to explain issues like the rise of non-state actors, identity politics, transnational social movements and information technology. The new major development is not only underway in the academic discipline of social science but also in the philosophy of social science, in a movement known as Positivism. Thus many alternative ways of thinking about the social sciences have been proposed and since the picture of IR theory has changed a series of alternative approaches has emerged as more relevant to world politics in the twenty first century (Smith S, 2008). Until the late 1980s, most social scientists in International Relations tended to be Positivists. But since then Positivism has been under attack. The assumptions made by Positivism met with dissent as criticism of the IR theories led by Positivism began to emerge (Smith S, 2008). This is the so-called the third debate (Ashley R., 1987; 1990; Walker R. B. J., 1993). It can also be called the Positivism and Post-Positivism debate (Lapid Y., 1989; Jim G., 1990; Smith S., 1995).. The dissent from Positivism prominently contains Feminism, Critical theory, Post-colonialism, Poststructuralism and Postmodernism. Their common idea is that they all see the world as something external to the IR theory (Smith S., 2008).Postmodernism is the term used by sociologists and others to describe a way of thinking that has become pervasive in the Western world in the last twenty-five years. It is an approach to reality that is having a significant effect on architecture, art, education, law, literature, psychotherapy, science, theatre, and the study of history and peoples view of religion (Exploring Christianity-Truth, n.d.). It reached IR theory in the mid-1980s, but can only be said to have really arrived in the past fifteen years (Smith S., 2008).The term Postmodernism first entered the philosophical lexicon in 1979, with the publication of The Postmodern Condition by Jean-Franà §ois Lyotard (Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy, 2005). Other significant writers who have promoted Postmodernism are De Man, Elshtain, Geoffrey Hartman, Harold Bloom, Michel Foucault, J. Hillis Miller, Jacques Derrida, Habermas, Richard Rorty and Rob Walker. Postmodernists who have made important contributions to IR theory are Richard Ashley, James Der Derian, David Campbell and William Connolly. Its origins are found in the philosophies of Nietzsche, Heidegger, Marx and Freud (Exploring Christianity-Truth, n.d.; Smith S., 2008). As cited in Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy (2005), That Postmodernism is indefinable is a truism. However, it can be described as a set of critical, strategic and rhetorical practices employing concepts such as difference, repetition, the trace, the simulacrum, and hyperreality to destabilize other concepts such as presence, identity, historical progress, epistemic certainty, and the univocity of meaning. Until today there is no fit definition for the Postmodernism because it appears to be so open a theory that not even its advocates can agree upon how to define it (Geuras D., 2002). Some define Postmodernism as distrustful of all authority and dogmatism. Jean-Franà §ois Lyotard defined it as incredulity towards metanarratives and essentialism (1984: xxiv). The following paragraphs will discuss the significant contributions that Postmodernism brings to IR theory and use the methods that Postmodernists provide to deconstruct the Iraq war. 1. Power-Knowledge relationship and the non-existence of absolute truth Postmodernists emphasized the power-knowledge relationship and criticized the notion dominant in rationalist theories and Positivism that knowledge is irrelevant to the working of power; they also opposed the existence of absolute truth. From the rationalists and Positivists perspective, knowledge is not related to power and truth exists. However, Michel Foucault (1977, 1978, 1984, and 1994) totally disagreed with this idea and argued that power in fact produces knowledge. There is a well-known saying from Foucault that All power requires knowledge and all knowledge relies on and reinforces existing power relations. Thus, no truth exists outside power. To paraphrase Foucaults idea, Smith (2008) provided another saying, how can history have a truth if truth has a history? Whilst Marxism, -Sandpoint feminism Critical theory and Freudian psychoanalysis all support the existence of some fundamental truth about the world, Postmodernism still quarrels with direct access to truth. This aspect is stated most clearly by Stanley Grenz (1995) in a Primer on Postmodernism: Postmodernism affirms that whatever we accept as truth and even the way we envision truth are dependent on the community in which we participate . . . There is no absolute truth: rather truth is relative to the community in which we participate (summarized in Dean G., 2002). The Postmodernists use Foucaults approach which is known as genealogy to register and expose the significance of history in the light of this relationship between power and knowledge. Genealogy helps us to realize the process whereby the origins and regimes of truth edge out other discourse and are constructed into the so-called truth. Postmodernism focuses on how fragmental facts dominate others in very concrete ways (see, for example, Edwards P. 1996; Devetak R., 1996, pp.184-188). Postmodernists apply the genealogy approach to doubt the unity and certainty of national identity and explain how the existing appearance of unity and certainty is not natural but artificially constructed (Huang C. C., 2009: pp.138). Richard Devetak (1996) has mentioned that different configurations of power and knowledge give rise to different conceptions of sovereignty, statehood and intervention. Postmodernists always focus on counter-histories, seldom portray the impossible-to-get-to truth, but emphasize the existence of multi-histories, not just the one grand-history (cited in Pà ¶lling-Vocke B., 2005b). Take the ongoing war in Iraq for example; it could be an interesting field of study for Postmodernists to think about its shifting justifications. The US administrations purpose in making war upon Iraq has shifted from Iraqs disarmament to the spread of democracy. Public support from US citizens is essential throughout the ongoing war in the aftermath of 9/11 and Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan and the Philippines), and it is reasonable to explain that the power-knowledge relationship contributes to the absence of outcry from US people. People have no means to access what they do not know about (Pà ¶lling-Vocke B., 2005b). 2. Divergent methodologies on analyzing text In addition to elaborating the power-knowledge relationship, Postmodernists are also concerned with the textual interplay behind power politics (Pà ¶lling-Vocke B., 2005b; Derrida J., 1976). They believe that the world needs to be understood as a text, and all references to it are interpretative. Postmodernists claim that the best explanation for the text does not exist because the world is plural and explanations must be plural (Luo Li, 2009). All the interpretations of the world are meaningful and equal thus they use many ways to realize the world, and Postmodernists use techniques such as deconstruction and double reading in explaining the text (world) (Smith S., 2001: 240). 2.1 Deconstruction Postmodernists suggest deconstruction as a method of showing how all discourses and theories depend on artificial stabilities produced by means of seemingly objective and natural oppositions as well as a way to help us realize that there is not only one but always more than one truth behind an event (Smith S., 2008). A good summary of postmodern thinking is given by Os Guinness in Fit Bodies, Fat Minds: Where modernism was a manifesto of human self-confidence and self-congratulation, Postmodernism is a confession of modesty, if not despair. There is no truth, only truths. There are no principles, only preferences. There is no grand reason, only reasons. There is no privileged civilization, only a multiple of cultures, beliefs, periods, and styles. There is no grand narrative of human progress, only countless stories of where people and their cultures are now. There is no simple reality or any grand objectivity of universal, detached knowledge, only a ceaseless representation of everything in terms of everything else. In sum, Postmodernismis an extreme form of Relativism. (Cited in Exploring Christianity) People always accept language or concepts constructed with the concept of binary opposition (such as black/ white, public/ private, right/ wrong, male/ female, homosexuality/ heterosexuality) as a matter of course. Constructivists make one of the binary privileged over the other by means of degrading the latter one. For example, in order to diminish white, Constructivists enhance the value of black (Luo Li, 2009). This concept is commonly used in contemporary political systems. When a dominant authority intends to intensify the reliability of a certain interpretation with respect to an event, it puts down the other possible but contrary interpretation.Jacques Derrida, a French Postmodern philosopher, originated the idea of deconstruction (Cky J. Carrigan, 1996). He himself found it difficult to explain the concept, and perhaps the clearest and most succinct definition comes from The Gale Cengage glossary: A method of literary criticismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦characterized by multiple conflicting interpretations of a given work. Deconstructionists consider the impact of the language of a work and suggest that the true meaning of the work is not necessarily the meaning that the author intended. Whilst the approach has been widely criticized and indeed ridiculed, for example by Anthony J. Fejfar (2006a, 2006b), it is an important tool in understanding what a text may be hiding. What Postmodernists try to do is to use deconstruction approaches to seek the truths behind an event that have been forgotten or deleted, and to explore the idea that a text is not a discrete whole but includes several irreconcilable and contradictory meanings; there is always more than one interpretation behind an event. Through the process of deconstruction, several explanations for the first occurrence of war in Iraq are revealed. From the standpoint of the Iraqi government, it was a matter of getting back their territory. For the elite members of an Iraq army group, it seemed a good opportunity for praiseworthy achievement. From an Iraqi generals perspective, it was a good opportunity for promotion. On the other hand, the women of Baghdad who suffered and became homeless may have attributed the terrible war to their fate or to America or may have seen it as a punishment from Allah. English and Egyptian soldiers may have seen different truths behind the war. American Ex President G.H.W. Bush claimed that the purpose of the Gulf war was to prevent the emergence of a dictator like Hitler in Middle East area (Nicholson M., 1998; Yuen H.L., 2006). The deconstruction approach can be used again to seek out more than one truth about the Second Gulf War in 2003. On 5th of February, 2003 United States Secretary of State, Colin Luther Powell proclaimed that the declaration of war was because of Iraqs possession of Weapons of Mass Destruction. The American government claimed that they were going to destroy the connection between Saddam Husseins Government and Al Qaida terrorists. American Ex President George Bush claimed that the war was inevitable in order to turn Iraq into a democratic nation. Some scholars argued that America intended to plunder Iraqs large oil reserves (Cited in Chui A.T., n.d.). The American administration tends to exclude many other possible interpretations of an event by only presenting the most favorable one with the assistance of the media (Nicholson M., 1998; Yuen H.L., 2006). While G. Bush refers to good and evil and frames the world in such terms, techniques as used during the Cold war, Postmodernists argue that neither term is pure or complete, but only becomes so in contrast to the other (Pà ¶lling-Vocke B., 2005b). Behind any event there is always more than one truth, as with the Gulf War and the 9/11 terrorism attacks on the New York Trade Centre: the reason broadcast to the world by the American administration was not the only one. The American government tends to intensify the reliability of certain interpretations with respect to these two events, and puts down the other possible but contrary interpretation. There are still lots of truths behind these wars that have not been exposed; Postmodernists try to use deconstruction to excavate truths (Nicholson M., 1998; Yuen H.L., 2006). 2.2 Double Reading Double reading is the other means used by Postmodernists to read a text more deeply and realize how there is always more than one reading. After the 1980s, Postmodernists started to use this method to analyze aspects of world politics like the anarchy problematique of dominant IR theory (Ashley R., 1988) and to explain international events such as the Kosovo War, the Gulf War or Nazi issues. Double reading and deconstruction are both methodologies used by Postmodernists to focus on texts and help us to realize that there is no absolute truth. These two ways of elaborating texts are both from Derrida. Derrida used this technique to show how these stabilizations operate by subjecting the text to two readings. The first time of the reading is only a repetition of the dominant concept and text and shows how it achieves its coherence (Smith S., 2008). The second time of reading is trying to read the text deeper and find the obvious contradictions from the first reading. All ideas in the text via the first reading seem natural stabilization; however, utilizing the second reading can help scholars to find some differences. From the double reading approach, people can realize that this way of reading the same text can reveal not only one seemingly natural idea but also can explore the other, contradictory ones. Double reading is a useful, Postmodernist tool to illustrate the shortcomings of the dominant analytical languages. For example, the anarchy problematique- no existence of central government or hegemonic nation in the world- rests on a series of questionable, theoretical suppositions or exclusions, and sovereignty and anarchy are mutually exclusive concepts, which have to be deconstructed (Pà ¶lling-Vocke B. , 2005b). In International Relation Theory, Richard Ashley has performed exactly such a double reading of the concept of anarchy(on the state-level). He first provided the reading of anarchy based on traditional IR theories and then went through the second reading which showed that the seemingly natural opposition between anarchy and sovereignty in the first reading is in fact false opposition. Ashley showed that the truth of the traditional assumptions made about anarchy is arbitrary (Smith S., 2008). While the dominating, orthodox analytical languages of the modernist project analyze the war in Iraq in neo-realistic terms, Postmodernism would use double readings to make visible the assumptions underlying such interpretations (Pà ¶lling-Vocke B., 2005b). Double reading is a useful tool for analyzing the post-war-war (May 2003 onwards) and illustrating that the reality is not as it is perceived by mainstream media (Pà ¶lling-Vocke B., 2005a). Postmodernists would also focus on analyzing the different interpretations of current affairs in Iraq and other world affairs. Conclusion Post-Positivism movements including Critical theory, Feminism, Post-colonialism, Poststructuralism and Postmodernism (which are so-called alternative approaches of IR theory) emerged as a reaction to the methodology led by Positivists and rationalists. . Some scholars have argued that Postmodernism does not have anything significant to contribute to the theorization of International Relations. Not only that, it also leads IR theory into chaos. However, the supporting evidence presented in this essay suggests that Postmodernism effectively provides many different ways of explaining and understanding systems of world politics. Postmodernism can be described as a challenge to the prevailing modernity project. It focuses on counter-hegemonic-theories and explains how conclusions perceived as rational only work within certain parameters. Postmodernists criticize the statement proposed by Positivism and Rationalism that power and knowledge are irrelevant. They present the Power-Knowledge relationship to let us understand that power in fact produces knowledge and they also propose the idea that there is no existence of absolute truth. From the Postmodernists perspective, there is always more than one truth existing in an event. Postmodernism also teaches us to employ techniques such as deconstruction and double reading to deconstruct texts and re-consider concepts that are seemingly natural and a matter of course. With regard to the war in Iraq, Postmodernists prefer to portray a wide array of descriptions and explanations than providing just one as the truth. With the world understood as a text, it is important that the textual interplay behind power politics is clearly seen and that we realize that all the references to this text are interpretive. Politicians always provide a reason for the war in Iraq such as It is about democracy and freedom or It is about the abundant oil. Postmodernists do not believe in the existence of only one truth behind the war and try to utilize genealogy, deconstruction and double reading to deeply analyze the text and explore the multiplicity of reasons. Although there are so many controversies surrounding the emergence and existence of Postmodernism, it is absolutely wrong and unfair to say that Postmodernism does not bring any significant contribution to our IR theory. During the past 20 years, Postmodernists have provided intelligent methodologies like double reading and deconstruction that may enable us to better analyze contemporary political issues. Obviously, Postmodernism plays an important role in the theorization of IR especially since economic structures, media, political and diplomatic systems have evolved into completely different forms from what they used to be, and they can no longer be easily analyzed by traditional IR theories.

Monday, August 19, 2019

UFO’s and Alien Life Essay -- Essays Papers

UFO’s and Alien Life For many incredibly interesting years, a certain question has troubled scientists, the government, and actually the rest of the world. Does alien life exist, along with the idea of unidentified flying objects, better known as UFO’s, and if they do, should the government keep spending money on the subject, when life on earth is in such financial trouble? Much research and money has been invested in this wondrous topic, although for the past fifty years scientists still remain clueless about the existence of extra-terrestrials. The history, the research, the encounters, and of course many other content areas, including financial interest puzzle myself and the rest of the world. This paper will involve an in-depth look at those subject areas, along with thier relation to the internet, and hopefully by the end, I will have the mystery of UFO’s and alien life figured out, and then I can share my knowledge with many others. The World Wide Web is full of different sites that relate to UFO’s and alien life. Most of the pages are factual and contain information to enhance people’s knowledge on this very obscure topic. These pages are not trying to sell you anything, not trying to get you to believe a certain thing, but rather just informing the public about UFO’s and aliens through the Internet. If you wanted information on UFO’s before the World Wide Web came about, how would you get it? You would have to go to the library and look up information that was outdated and time consuming. Now you can just type UFO’s into the Net Search box and up pop all different types of sites relating to UFO’s and alien life. There is information from years ago and current information of recent sightings and reportings. UFO... ... it to the best of my ability.(http://rogue.notrhwest.com/~gb1018/paranormal.html) The next time you think you just woke up from a bad nightmare, and thought you were just dreaming about aliens because of the episode of the X-Files you watched two nights ago, think again. Maybe you were abducted by aliens and UFO’s, and maybe you better get on the internet to find out!!!!!!! Works Cited Anonymous, http://rogue.northwest.com/~gb1018/paranormal.html, (14 April 1997). North Kitsap UFO Society Report a UFO In Kitsap Country, http://www.oz.net/~ smoke25/nkufo.htm, (14 April 1997). Lambright, Chris, UFO's: A closer look..., http://www.tcet.unt.edu/~chrisl/ufos. Htm, (14 April 1997). Vallee, Jacques, UFO's are a Hot topic, http://www.phoenixat.com/scott/ufo.html, (14 April 1997). UFO Links, http://members.tripod.com/~andreajp/links.htm, (14 April 1997).

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Mainstreaming Disabled Students Essay -- Teaching Education Inclusion

Mainstreaming Disabled Students According to the Curry School of Education, approximately 80% of students with learning disabilities receive the majority of their instruction in the general classroom (â€Å"Inclusion.† http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/curry/dept/cise/ose.html. 10 Oct. 1999). That number is expected to rise as teachers and parents become aware of the benefits of inclusion. Because there are so many disabled students in regular schools, it is important to look at whether or not mainstreaming is necessary for their education. For parents, having their disabled children mainstreamed into regular education can be a difficult choice. Although disabled children’s education can be more challenging in regular schools, the benefits of inclusion include enhanced self-esteem, development of social skills, and exposure to regular curriculum. Many people believe mainstreaming only helps disabled children, but there are many challenges that hurt their education rather than help. Both faculty and students can be cruel to disabled students. Because they are not used to interacting with disabled children, faculty and students may be uncomfortable with the situation and be insensitive to the disabled children. By ignoring the disabled children or treating them badly, the children will lose self-esteem and may disrupt the class in order to show their unhappiness. Some teachers are not familiar with teaching disabled children, so the education is lacking for the children....

Comparing Tough Times :: essays research papers

Comparing Tough Times   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Authors have done many essays on learning and teaching. In two particular essays, the authors focus more on reading and learning to speak good, which is also associated with reading. The narrators in Frederick Douglas’s essay â€Å"Learning to Read and Write† and Maxine Hong Kingston’s â€Å"Learning to Speak Like and American Girl† not only tell the reader about their conflict of relationship between society’s dominant culture and their own sense of identity, but educate the reader and explain the choices the characters make which determine the direction of their lives.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In â€Å"Learning to Read and Write† the speaker tells about his life as a young slave boy. He is â€Å"†¦twelve years old, and [is thought of by others as] being a slave for life†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (1003) His desire and yearning to read and write is not allowed as a slave. He meets a few young white boys who are willing to teach him how to read and write if he will bring them bread. â€Å"As many of these I could, I converted into teachers.†(1003) Kingston’s essay â€Å"Learning to Speak Like and American Girl† is similar to â€Å"Learning to Read and Write† because of the time period and the controversy. During this time, which is set during World War II, Chinese girls were just begining to be sent to American schools and taught how to speak and read English. The students in the class and the teacher would give these students a hard time because they were not loud or fluent enough. â€Å"When I went to kindergarten and had to speak English for the first time, I became silent.†(1007) these two stories are similar in society because they are both challenged with the dominant culture. The authors express their own sense of identity by telling the readers their ethnic background and their significance in the story. The speaker in the â€Å"Learning to Read and Write† shows his identity as a young slave wanting to read and write. The speaker in â€Å"Learning to Speak Like and American Girl† is a young Chinese girl learning to speak and read English fluently. Both authors have similar conflicts yet they represent a different era in history.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In these essays, the authors are telling a story about the characters life. The stories are directed towards the audience to express the kind of pain and suffering the characters went through to learn and apply what they had been yearning for.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Fahrenheit 451 Theme and the World of Today Essay

There have been a lot technological developments and advancements in the world. Technological advancements include the Televisions, computers and mobile phones that have become part of human life (Bloom, 76). From the futuristic book Fahrenheit 451, the author notes that the Television has become one of the enemies that people have in the world. The Television is seen as a replacement of the curiosity in human beings, the intellectual aspect as well as a replacement of literature. Furthermore, it is noted in the book that the Television has become a substitute in the family whereby people are glued to what is on the television rather than spend time with families (Bloom, 77). Friendships have been replaced with Television and no meaningful or real conversations can be started without the interruption of the Television. People are busy looking for happiness because people seem to be happy when they do not have to do the â€Å"difficult† work of thinking critically as noted by the author of the story (Bloom, 77). However, the benefits of television cannot be ignored because of the information aspect of that people can gain. Television, in the current world, has helped a lot in the distribution of the information. Marketers of products rely on television to inform consumers of their products. Governments make use of televisions to pass information to the subjects. It is a contrast that the same tool that is said to replace families and friendships and prevent meaningful conversations is the same tool that is used to unite people (Bloom, 78). Television unites people through information in other aspects, political, social and even economic issues, in the society. Therefore, the theme of Television is directly related to the current world and the way people have become glued to technology use across the world. References Bloom, Harold. Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, New Edition. New York: Chelsea House, 2008. Internet resource. P.76-78 Source document

Friday, August 16, 2019

Early Marriage for Young Girls: Cause and Effect Essay

Getting married before the age of eighteen would be a massive struggle for young girls. In several countries, young girls between the ages of seven and fifteen are frequently married to older men by force. During this marriage, girls countenance severe destitutions including the lack of education, emotional difficulty, and underprivileged social skills. The emotional and social effects of untimely marriages are diverse. The mainly common result is the extraction of young girls from formal education. When a girl gets to the age around ten, her parents have previously set a wedding for her and have taken her out of school to get ready the girl to be married and to have kids. At the age around ten a girl is not completely grown, nor is she sound educated. Education is one of the major losses to a girl if she is wedded immature. Taking a girl away from school to marry and to have children limits her opportunities to develop as an individual. (Lifanda, online) After getting married and having a child, a lot of times the girl will want to go back to school to further her education, but most schools will refuse to take in a girl if she is married or has a child. These girls that now have a family at a young age have to work to earn a living, but since they are denied an education, they are not qualified for most jobs that are available around them. Not only does a girl mislay her education, but she also experiences an emotional difficulty. From the point of birth, girls are prepared to believe that their only job in life is to get married and to have kids. Read more:Â  Essay on Child Marriage Being forced to marry someone can frequently create despondency in both the male and female. If they are unhappy with each other then the relationship can turn in to an abusive relationship, causing things to become worse. Sometimes a girl can not take the abuse any more from her husband so she ends up committing suicide or running away with her children. More regularly the girl will escapee and locate a distant relative to live with. When a girl runs away from her husband it brings shame upon the family and the family cuts the girl off from their lives. This leaves the girl alone even more than before. Girls that marry young are often estranged from society, leaving them unaccompanied in life with no friends. A girl’s social position is very low compared to a male’s social status for the reason that girls were never looked upon as something great. Girls for all time had to work harder and received less food than the males. (Lifanda, online) When a girl became ill, it was much harder for her to receive an immunization whereas a male gets sick and he receives an immunization almost immediately. These girls only have their husband and their children in their lives. A lot of times the husband is very abusive and is not a friend to the girl. Many girls die young from these premature relationships. Getting pregnant at a young age is also a problem for the girl because her body has not fully matured. Pregnancy is the leading cause of mortality in fifteen to nineteen year old girls worldwide. The lack of underprivileged social skills, education and the emotional misfortunes are all effects of before time marriage that escort to a poor life for an innocent child. In modern years families have comprehended that immature marriages are not fine for children. Numerous concern groups have tried to create new laws in countries so that the officially permitted age to get married is eighteen in order to save lives and generate an improved world for females. Works Cited Lifanda N. Kate, (January 10- February 4, 2005), Education and Training of Women and the Girl-Child, retrieved on November 23, 2006 from http://www. un. org/womenwatch/forums/review/Edu_Training_Women_Girl-child. pdf

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Coal Keeps the Lights on

He would go in at dark and leave at dark and often go without eating or taking a break because his Job was so demanding. Even though mining was dangerous and vigorous work he loved his Job. In 1966 his pay was $3. 25 an hour, for that day and time he was making good money. In 1980 when he had to quit due to health issues his top pay was $26. 00 an hour. 00nes) fit was hard, but I had a Job to do.Coal keeps the lights on. said Delbert. His Job came with many responsibilities. He had to take care of himself, make sure his workers were all safe and make sure they got the Job done. Cones) When he got his Job finished he was ready to go home to his wife and family. Delbert said there was nothing better than the boss saying may boys lets shut her down, its time to go home. That was something they looked forward to after a long days work. Upchurch 2 He knew when he was a little boy he was going to be a coal miner. His grandfather, father and many close relatives and friends were all coal mi ners.If you lived in Harlan, more than likely you were going to be working in the mines. The best thing he liked about his Job was the challenge of hard work. He said he loved anything that came as challenge to him, he loved when he achieved exactly what he set out to do. Cones) Jones said he misses working in the mines. If his health was better he would be right back. He also said that most of his family worked in the mines, but he wouldn*†° want any of his grandchildren going through what he did to provide for his family. He said It was a good Job, but he could live without the aches and pain he feels veryday.Cones) Although life in the mines were hard, it was even harder on his body. The twenty two years he gave the mines gave him back one destroyed body. He ended up having black lung disease from inhaling all of the coal dust which eventually turned in to COPD Cones) He also nad to go through six back surgeries trom all ot the bending over and crawling he had to do. He said if you work in the mines you will come out with an old tattered up and worn down body. He would love to be living in Harlan, working dusk til dawn living the coal miners life. It was and will always be apart of who he is.Two of his sons also worked in the mines along side of him. They didn*†° put nearly as many years as he did, but put enough in to both be disabled with back injuries. Jones said it was important to him that he see them get out of there before they got *lack lungand It take over the rest of their lives. He said he would have loved it if his body would have let him work long enough to retire from the mines. That was one of the goals he had set for himself that he didn*†° get to accomplish. Jones said he is somewhat thankful he got out when he did, if not the stress of the Job may have been too hard on

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Eagle Airlines

[pic] Eagle Airlines Business Decisions with Data Models Assignment on Risk Analysis Team Members: Sfykti Dimitra Goumas Evangelos Manikas Athanasios Papaspirou Yiannis As assigned by Mr. Hadjistelios, President of Eagle Airlines, a simulation analysis is developed in order to evaluate company’s intention to proceed with the purchase of a new aircraft. According to the President’s estimations, the uncertain parameters which affect the annual cash flow are the below; 1. Hours flown 2. Charter Price/Hour 3. Ticket Price/Hour 4. Capacity of Scheduled flights 5. Ratio of charter flights 6.Operating Cost/hour The main assumption to work upon the scenarios is that the numbers generated for the different variables remain the same across the years. Initially, a base scenario is built and a profit-and-loss account for a typical year of operation is derived using the most likely values of the different parameters. Upon construction of the base scenario, the optimistic and pessimi stic scenarios are also formulated in accordance to the assumptions by the President in respect to possible variations to higher and lower values than the most likely ones used for the base scenario.For all three scenarios, the demand/cash flow is calculated revealing a wide range of values (from â‚ ¬273. 180 to -â‚ ¬39. 040) among the 3 possible cash flows. In addition, the one-way sensitivity analysis conducted for all six uncertain parameters demonstrate the impact of each parameter on annual cash flow and by the designation of a scatter plot, we can identify to what range of values every uncertain parameter affects the demand. Upon that, a Tornado diagram is plotted in order to visually demonstrate the range of impact of each parameter.According to the diagram, ticket prices/hour and capacity of Scheduled flights seem to be the two important parameters that most influence the annual cash flow, whereas the ratio of charted flights and operating cost/hour are the ones affect the least. Following this determination, a two-way sensitivity analysis is implemented and the outputs shown in a 3D plot illustrate a one-level relationship between the variables. By assuming that the probability distributions are the ones assessed by Mr. Hadjistelios, a test scenario is run using the @RISK add-in with 50. 00 iterations and the results’ interpretation is described below. Interpretation of results The basic data and the main decision factors to be taken into consideration by the President are raised below in order to provide substantial argumentation for the final business decision. ? According to the given data, the annual cash flow of the base scenario is â‚ ¬46. 184, less than the breakeven point by â‚ ¬7. 513. Therefore, in case the base scenario will actually happen, the company will need more than a 5-year lifetime in order to pay out the investment of the new aero plane. In the optimistic scenario, the annual cash flow is â‚ ¬273. 180 and the difference from the breakeven point is â‚ ¬219. 483. According to this scenario, the investment is highly profitable and will be paid off by the end of the first year while a number of approximately â‚ ¬93. 180 profits will be generated. ? In the pessimistic scenario, the annual cash flow is – â‚ ¬39. 040 and the difference from the breakeven point is â‚ ¬92. 737. , which is a bad scenario but at the same time quite unlikely to happen. According to @RISK analysis, as illustrated in the figure below, some important observations are derived; [pic] The probability that the investment will be profitable within a 5-year lifetime is 73. 4%, meaning that the annual cash flow will be greater than the breakeven point of â‚ ¬53. 697. ? The probability the annual cash flow to be less than the breakeven point is 26. 6%, as presented in the graph above. ? However, it is important to refer that the same probability (26. 6%) applies for the company to generate cash over ↚ ¬96. 511. The above implies the fact that if in one year the cash flow is below breakeven point, this under the same probability can be offset by another year’s revenues. [pic] According to the normal probability distribution, the expected value (mean) is approximately â‚ ¬77. 342 that actually is translated into a â‚ ¬23. 645 return on investment. ? A probability over 50% that the company will generate cash flow of at least â‚ ¬74. 467 (median) which represents the 40% of the aeroplane current value. ? However, another important statistical parameter to be taken into account is the standard deviation of â‚ ¬35. 257 that describes a quite wide dispersion/variability of the probability distribution. ? If we do not take into consideration the discount rate of 15%, then the breakeven point will be 36. 00 (180. 000/5) and the probability of the investment to be profitable is 89%. ? In case the company self-funds the purchase out of the cash surplus of the company, t he investment seems to be less risky since potential deviation from the breakeven point does not imply financial obligations to third parties, such as banks (loans and interest rates). [pic] ? The probability that the investment will be paid off already by the end of the first year is 0. 7% while the probability that the company will generate negative values by the end of the first year is 0. % which seems a quite extreme case, with a smallest value of -â‚ ¬22. 642. [pic] ? However, it should be considered that the company operates a number of business parts and it is being taxed for the total activities as a whole, thus with a tax rate of 33% the actual loss will be â‚ ¬22. 642 * 0. 67 =â‚ ¬15. 170, with the assumption that the company is profitable overall. Another important factor to consider is the operations’ expansions by 33% with the purchase of one additional aircraft to the current equipment of the three twin – engine aircrafts which provide charter f lights and scheduled commuter services.The company may redefine the strategy and decide to add new destinations in the services, currently limited to south Balkans, so as under the promising prospects analysed above, to further strengthen the company’s brand name and grow the Share of Market (SoM). The above can be well justified considering both cases of charter and scheduled flights. On the one hand, in respect to charter flights the company seems to have already identified available ground to grow by further building on the level of service.On the other hand, the scheduled flights, currently holding a percentage of 60%, represent the variable that mostly affects the cash flow, according to Tornado diagram. This in combination with the fact that the company â€Å"had slightly more control over the ticket price per/hour of scheduled flights† demonstrates a high future development potential with a thorough strategy. The critical service category in the context of the n ew investment risk analysis for Eagle airlines to analyze is Scheduled flights.Ticket prices/hour and capacity of Scheduled flights, the two most important and correlated variables, should be in depth evaluated according to the most likely possible estimations. For example, according to the data given, the variability for the price per ticket is greater in the higher values than the lowest ones. However, the actual price per ticket is highly correlated to the capacity/utilization rate and the flight hours. The base scenario argues for good prospects, but a deeper analysis could identify opportunities that Eagle airlines should closely monitor and evaluate in order to maximize its profits.It is important also to refer that according to the estimations, there is no high variability of the operating costs compared to the expected value of â‚ ¬445/hour (only â‚ ¬15 in either direction). Some important facts are given also throughout the case providing additional argumentation over the purchase; Piper Chieftain has been maintained according to the legislations and regulatory environment, is in a good condition and the expected normal use is 5 years with possibilities for more, contains the necessary navigation and communication equipment, and insurance has been included in the fixed costs.The above, in case were unknown, would be important cost factors to analyze and include in the risk analysis assessment. The above analysis argues the business decision to proceed with the investment in the Piper Chieftain, having calculating and evaluating the risks involved while recognising the opportunities.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 6

Case Study - Essay Example The case study notes that a European manufacturer has approach the company to make a strategic partnership with the company which shows that some companies think that Morepen is ripe for taking a taking a stake in if not an outright takeover. The share price of Morepen shows a downward trend which means that investor confidence in the company has been eroding over the past few months. However, the firm shows healthy profit after tax figures which means that there could be some room for experimentation but not enough for the firm to engage in highly risky behavior. There is a substantial risk involved in the pharmaceutical business as noted by the case study since the behavior of other companies can lead to improved drugs coming to the market which can make older drugs obsolete. Morepen does not appear to have enough funds to conduct its own research and development into new drugs therefore sticking to generic drugs has led to the early success of the company. However, if Morepen wishes to remain competitive in the market with regard to other companies who are developing new drugs; it may have to make significant investments in research towards creating successful new drugs or improve upon older drugs. Luckily, since the company is located in India, the development cost of a new drug is substantially lower therefore it is possible that they can create drugs which let them remain competitive and avoid any attempts for takeovers. While the American and European markets remain lucrative for the company, the home market brings the bulk of their income and they can also focus on brining improvements to the home market drugs for a greater competitive advantage. It must be noted that all the recommendations which can be given to the company come with a high element of risk since the decisions are not easily reversible and the investment

Monday, August 12, 2019

Objective Presentation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Objective Presentation - Essay Example These actions are usually guided by a job description to make them efficient and effective. However, the job description reflects on the organizational structure to assist the staff know the job titles, supervisor and subordinate, specific tasks required, department or units, and among others. In addition, staff members are usually under the control of people of higher ranks known as managers. These managers use an organizational structure to assist them determine which human, technical, and financial resources are available, which resources are lacking, and how resources should be allocated to attain organizational objectives and goals. There are three organizational structures and include Hierarchical, matrix and network structure. However, the optimal structure is a matrix or team structure. This is because it encourages interaction and participation among staff members, hence enhancing interpersonal relations. In addition, it also encourages managers to be more of group leaders and facilitators hence increasing accountability among staff members in an organization. When comparing the matrix structure with the rest, it always emerges the best. Managers in a Hierarchical structure always act as the final decision-makers, but those in matrix structure, focus on the accomplishment of shared objects of the team. In addition, staff members involved in a network structure, usually have a lot of differences in their affiliation and may fail to come up with a common goal. In matrix structure, staff members coordinate with one another and with their facilitator whose primary responsibility is to set objectives and evaluate

Personal Reflection on education Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Personal Reflection on education - Essay Example Knowing the value of the degree that will be awarded from Strayer University, I expect to get a reputable post in a well known organization. I expect that the masters’ degree programme at Strayer University will provide me with better professional career and will assist me throughout my working life by the knowledge it will give. I also expect to use the concepts being taught and the experience gained in my regular life. The reason for choosing Strayer University is the goodwill that it has earned through years of excellent teaching. The high achievers being qualified for degrees from this university are being called in by various organizations. The excellence of the university, hence, becomes a part of the students’ name and the student becomes an efficient professional in his latter life. Hence, I have chosen this university for the knowledge it conveys and the experiences it transfers in the students. I work for the Saudi Embassy as a captain in Saudi Army. This degree would also be helpful in getting a promotion from a captain to a major’s post. The requirements set by the organization to acquire higher degrees led me to pursue this programme.

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Discuss the ways in which contemporary organisational theory can be Essay

Discuss the ways in which contemporary organisational theory can be read as criticism of organisational theories developed in the course of the 20th century - Essay Example During the early 20th century the imperialist era started while the situation then demanded the workers of revolutionary and the new type parties are said to be capable to lead then bring the completions which was then victorious as the struggle that is against bourgeoisie preserving the rule and then set up the repressive ramification with state apparatus, the military machine which is said to be powerful and the means in economic, political and ideological for the purpose of disuniting as well s disarming with those people who are working. The workers of new type are said to be capable in order to lead the class who are working and not to be advanced as well as organized and conscious part in politics with the class considerably working but also in the organization as the highest form that directs all the proletarian organizations with all forms of struggles by the proletariat. There is also evolution of capitalism during the 20th century with pre-monopoly capitalism that becomes v ery imperative with the said working class raising the This is also the period that marked the struggle which is against the right line of opportunist in terms of International leadership in order to build the revolutionary parties that is proletarian capable to lead the socialist revolutions in terms of the countries classified as the capitalist imperialist and the revolutions that are said to be democratic in Asia, African and those countries who are said to Latin-American under the oppression and plunder while both the revolutionary trends may form the integral parts of the world as the revolution in socialist area as well as the organization and at the same time leading the proletariat with the toiling masses in terms of democracy and of course socialism. The struggle was then experienced on all the fronts under the CPSU leadership leading to the great victory regarding the Revolution of October while forming the Third International as well as the communist parties' formation that happened and experience all over the world which was then surrounded with the class as revolutionary and organizational mass. The adverse were said to be the real break through from the stagnant period facing the movement of revolution by the first decade of the 20th century. The trade unions was then organized as part of the said activities which was then during the period while Lenin was able to write the Trade Union Organizations considerably of tremendous value that served the development as well as the economic struggle consolidation but became very important in terms of auxiliary in agitation for politics and the organizational revolution and those right who are Contemporary Organizational Theory P

Saturday, August 10, 2019

News Article Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

News Article - Assignment Example The reproductive system of both sexes is biochemically and anatomically formed in a way that they have the ability to produce new life to ensure perpetuation of life. It is unique that, among all the body systems the reproductive system is the only body system which an individual may decide not to use to the fullest. Some individuals do not reproduce due their own personal reasons. When sperms are produced by the penis and deposited in the vagina, they travel to the fallopian tubes. Through conception process one of them fuses with the ovum forming one single cell. At this stage the sex of the individual is determined and the baby possesses all the genetic requirements. The 46 chromosomes that the baby receives from both parents will be with the individual for the whole of his/ her lifetime. No genetic addition will take place but more significantly nutrition and oxygen will be required for life to be sustained. Development of the baby in the mother’s womb takes place in three trimesters. In the first trimester, dramatic and dynamic takes place. In trimester two, the baby prepares for survival outside the womb and in the third and last trimester, the baby develops the body organs and system and gains weight. The main purpose of the reproductive system is procreation and this is done by giving birth to young ones. For fertilization to take place the sperm and the ovum from the male and the female respectively must unite. Immediately conception takes place development starts and it takes place in three trimesters. The baby gets all the chromosomes from both parents and that is the number of chromosomes that an individual possesses in the whole of his or her lifetime. I learnt that the reproductive system is very significant in procreation. Creation of new beings occurs after fusion of the sperm and ova. in the developmental phases

Friday, August 9, 2019

Genetic Engineering Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Genetic Engineering - Essay Example Both genetic and chromosomal abnormalities or anomalies causes diseases such as Sickle cell anemia, Tay sach’s, Phenylketonuria, Thalassemia, cystic fibrosis, polydactyly, Cri-Du Chat, Down’s , Klinefelters etc. But these are just a few names, and there is a long list of genetic disorders that humans may develop either congenitally or in their lifetime. Since genetic diseases cannot be treated or cured pharmacologically, biological researchers have come up with Gene Therapy, the only hope for genetic diseases. Gene therapy is the treatment of diseases by replacing, changing or supplementing a particular gene which is either abnormal or absent and owing to whose abnormality or absence a genetic diseases is developed. Gene Therapy has no chemicals or drugs in its therapy, it simply employs genetic material (DNA) itself as the means of treatment since most, if not all genetic diseases have a genetic factor which maybe wither wholly or partially responsible for the disorder. Gene therapy is a complex procedure that involves transfer of genetic material to the cell nucleus of the patient and this is where Genetic Engineering plays its role. The genetic material that is to be used for therapeutic purposes needs is inserted in a virus vector. The viral vectors are â€Å"genetically engineered† to enter the target cell and are harml ess while its genetic material is replaced with the therapeutic genetic material. These viral vectors or carriers are then inserted into the body. In fact the entire procedure of gene therapy depends on genetic engineering because without which genetic manipulation or handling would not have been possible. Following the completion of the human Genome project, it has become easier to identify or trace faulty genes. Genetic Engineering is a promising field because humans have successfully studied genes and their locus which makes gene manipulation much easier. But, the use of human genetic engineering is

Thursday, August 8, 2019

Direct government actions and effects related to public university Research Paper

Direct government actions and effects related to public university issues - Research Paper Example The federal government is estimated to contribute 10.8 percent of educational finances in elementary and secondary education (U.S Department of Education 1) Involvement of the government in public universities can be dated back to after the World War where they were viewed as an extension of the government. This is attributed to the fact that their teaching budgets were outsourced from the government. Additionally, their research efforts were financed by the federal government and the state. Within the recent time, this has changed, with a significant proportion of public universities receiving majority of their revenues from tuition fee. This has increased by 6 percent from 1993-1994 with allocations per student by the government being lower in 2004-2005 as compared to the former years. This is since the government has not increased the allocations, leading to public universities increasing their tuition fee in bid to account for the 38 percent growth of enrollment in public univers ities (Bublitz and Martin 56). ... Accreditation agencies are other institutions that serve as stakeholders in the public universities. These accreditation agencies are responsible for the development of policies, rules, and regulations that are to be followed by the public universities. These institutions are responsible for enhancing that the education requirements are met by the public universities so as to be in a position to offer courses they intend to offer. These accrediting institutions are also involved in examining, licensing and evaluating the public universities (Council for Higher Education Accreditation 1). The students in the public universities are other stakeholders as pertains to public universities. These students are enrolled from diverse capacities in bid of the government to ensure equal access to education for all. Students enrolled in these public universities are perceived as consumers of the education and the revenue channeled into their education by the government, with an expectation that they will repay in future. The families of the students and the community the students belong to are also stakeholders since they benefit from the expertise of the students upon graduation from public universities (Bublitz and Martin 56). Arguments In Support Of Government Continuing To Play a Direct Role The United States government acknowledges that public universities which serve as institutions of higher learning are of significant importance as national security, health care, and development of alternative energy. This is attributed to the fact that public universities serve as a hub for dreamers and doers; innovators and engineers; technicians and scientists, and theorists and