Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Review the list of reasons why plans fail as described in Ch. 11 of Project Management. Which of these reasons applies to defining and sequencing activities? As a project manager, what steps may you take to prevent your plan from failing? There are many reasons why plans fail to succeed. In discussing our answers to this question, Team C felt that in the list of reasons on why plans fail, poor planning would be on top of the list. When there are no attempts in pushing forward with already made plans, the project is bound to fail. Another reason why project plans fail is because the data in which plans are based are insufficient making it difficult for project managers to take control and give out orders. With insufficient data, the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s scope would seize to exist. Along with not have an identified scope, the team would not know the ultimate objective of the project, and because of this, people will work towards different directions rather than one common goal. It is important that the reasons on the list are taken care of or prevented. This can be done during the defining and sequencing process. As a project manager, the steps we discussed that are necessary to be taken in order to prevent a plan from failing would be to properly develop a projectÃ¢â¬â¢s plan. This would include defining each activityÃ¢â¬â¢s relevance to the project. By doing so, there is a stated initiative as well as a reason why the project is being done. In order to have a properly developed plan, we would hold a kick off meeting, which would discuss the expectations of every team member, have the purpose clearly conveyed to the team, as well as build strong and positive team energy. There would be frequent follow-ups in order to assure that each step is being completed to getting the project finished. Lastly, we would offer rewards as incentives for the team to complete their tasks efficiently and on time.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Acid Rain: The Southern Company (A) Case Analysis | Production Processes and Costs| Executive Summary In the year 1992, the Southern Company that held the Bowen plant, a coal-fired steam electric plant had to decide on the various options available to comply with the amendments in the Clean Air Act, effective 1995. The Bowen plant was an unusually large plant with a capacity to serve the residential, commercial and industrial demands of 1 million people. The Bowen generators consumed 8.338 million tons of coal and generated 21,551 million kilowatt-hours of electricity. During 1990, Bowen plant emitted over 30 tons of sulfur dioxide per hour, an important precursor of acid rain. In 1990, Congress passes the Clean Air Act that aimed at controlling acid rain. As per the Clean Air Act, beginning 1995 (Phase 1) all the coal-fired utility plants would be receiving allowances to emit 2.5 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million British Thermal Units (MMBtu) of coal consumed. In the year 2000 (Phase 2), all coal-fired utility plants, would get allowances worth 1.2 pounds per MMBtu of coal. The plants either had to reduce their emissions or purchase additional allowances from other firms. The Bowen plant received allowances for 254,580 tons of sulfur dioxide for each if the five years, from 1995 till 1999. From year 2000, it would receive allowances worth 122,198 tons per year. To comply with this new law, Southern Company had the following options: * Burn high sulfur Kentucky coal without scrubbing the exhaust gases, as in past, and buy the allowances from other firms. * Install scrubbers to remove sulfur dioxide from the exhaust gases of the generators. There were further two options available to be considered * Scrubbers could be installed from 1992 to 1994, to be ready for Phase one. * Install scrubbers from 1997-1999 and be ready for Phase 2. * Switch to low-sulfur coal from Kentucky or West Virginia. The emissions would be lower than the amount permi tted in Phase One, but inÃ Phase Two they would have to buy allowances. As a result of the analyses, Option 3 : burning low-sulfur coal seem to be the best fit in this situation, because it has the minimum cost involved and thereby, generates the maximum profits for the company. PROBLEM STATEMENT The Southern Company, is trying to figure out the best option available, the one with the minimum costs involved, to comply with the amendments in the Clean Air Act, effective 1995. The main issue was the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted each hour by the plant, which was 30 tons in year 1990. As per the amendments in the Clean Air Act, the amount of sulfur dioxide was regulated to 2.5 pounds per MMBTu of coal from year 1995 and further reduced to 1.2 pounds per MMBtu of coal from year 2000. The regulated amount was the total emission allowed by all the coal-fired utility plants in the country. As a result, Bowen plant would receive an allowance for 254,580 tons for each of five years beginning 1995 and 122,198 tons per year starting 2000. The company could either buy extra allowances from other firms or reduce the emission amount by either scrubbing off the sulfur dioxide from exhausted gases or use low-sulfur coal. METHODOLOGY The case presents three main options which were analyzed to make an informed decision about the choice to be made. I have calculated the net present value of the costs involved in each of the three methods and recommend the option one with minimum net present value of cost to be used for complying with the Clean Air Act amendment. The three available options are: * Burn high sulfur Kentucky coal without scrubbing the exhaust gases, as in past, and buy the allowances from other firms. * Install scrubbers to remove sulfur dioxide from the exhaust gases of the generators. There were further two options available to be considered * Scrubbers could be installed from 1992 to 1994, to be ready for Phase one. The Bowen plant would then be generating lower sulfur dioxide emissions that could be sold to other firms * Install scrubbers from 1997-1999 and be ready for Phase 2. In this, they will be generating excess of allowed emission levelÃ in Phase 1 (1995-1999) and would have to buy those allowances. Starting Phase 2 (year 2000), they would be in a state to sell the allowances. * Switch to low-sulfur coal from Kentucky or West Virginia. The emissions would be lower than the amount permitted in Phase One, but in Phase Two they would have to buy allowances. To calculate the total costs involved for each of the three options, I have considered only those factors that are not common in all. I have calculated only the excess of cost that might be required to deploy an option. The current operating costs and all costs that do not change amongst the options have been left out as these costs would remain same and will have no effect on the decision. Data Requirement or Sources The data used to perform analysis has been taken from the case study only. The factors available are: * Switching cost of coal: switching from high sulfur to low sulfur. * Costs or revenue involved with buying or selling, respectively, the sulfur dioxide emission allowances. * Depreciation on capital costs * Capital costs involved to upgrade the plant with scrubbers or existing machinery. * Additional operating costs * Energy consumptions (Revenue lost) when using scrubbers. * Federal and state taxes involved * Discount rate used by the company to evaluate investment opportunities. Key Assumptions To determine the costs involved in the given three options, following assumptions have been made: * There is no available evidence that the cost of coal may deviate from the given amounts, or the company seems to have contracts with the coal vendors and so the values are constant. * The electricity generated by the plant remains constant throughout the operation of the plant, that is, amount of electricity generated is 21,551 million kilowatt hours every year. * The amount of coal required toÃ generate the electricity amount remains fixed to 8.338 million tons when high-sulfur coal is used and 8.391 million when low-sulfur coal is used. * In 1990, the revenue generated by electricity is $5.6 cents per kilowatt hour on an average, and will more or less the same. * The rate of buying or selling allowances is estimated to be $250 in year 1995 and will increase at a rate of 10% every year till 2010. After 2010, the rates will remain constant. * As per the amendments in the Clean Air Act, in Phase One, Bowen plant will be allowed to emit 254580 tons of sulfur dioxide and in Phase Two, 122198 tons of sulfur dioxide. * There are firms ready to sell or buy the allowances for sulfur dioxide emissions. Analysis Option 1: Burning High-Sulfur Coal without Scrubbers; Purchase Allowances In this option, we consider using the existing infrastructure. Since, the companies are allowed to buy extra emissions from some other firms, we will consider that. The information that is available to analyze is: * Cost of coal from 1992-1995 is $41.46 per ton and is expected to fall down to $29.82 per ton from 1996. * The amount of sulfur dioxide emitted is 266550 tons for burning 8.338 million of high-sulfur coal. * The first and only cost in this method will be the cost to buy emission allowances for sulfur dioxide from other firms. The costs will vary every year because of the difference in allowance prices as shown in Exhibit Ã¢â¬Å"Option1Ã¢â¬ 1. * There is no capital costs involved in this method as there we are not investing in machinery required. Also, since there is no capital costs involved, there is no depreciation. * The additional operating costs are also zero. After, adding the tax benefits to the total cost, the net present value of cost in this method is $266,379,610. The advantages of using this approach are that there will be no costs to add or upgrade machinery. Also, since the plant will be operating as it currently is, there are least chances of unexpected malfunctioning of the plant. The issue with this approach is that we are assuming that there are firms willing to sell their allowances. But, since it is known that the Bowen plant is comparatively cleaner thanÃ the other coal-fired steam electric plant, finding the firms willing to sell involves risk. And in-case, if we are not able to find firms ready to sell allowances, it will put the plant into a risk of shutting the operations and pay fines, or decrease the amount of electricity generation to emit the allowed sulfur dioxide levels. Also, it is a greater threat to the environment to emit such large numbers of sulfur dioxide when there are methods available to decrease those numbers. Option 2: Burning High-Sulfur Coal with Scrubbers; Sell Allowances In this option, we consider adding scrubbers to the plant. Scrubbers will help reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide emissions by 90%. In this option, the plant will be able to sell allowances as very low amounts of sulfur dioxide will be emitted by the plant. The information that is available to analyze this option is: * Cost of coal from 1992-1995 is $41.46 per ton and is expected to fall down to $29.82 per ton from 1996. * The amount of sulfur dioxide emitted is 26655 tons for burning 8.338 million of high-sulfur coal, once the scrubbers are installed * The first cost in this method will be the cost of installing scrubbers. The scrubbers are highly expensive and so can be considered to be installed and ready to use either by the beginning of Phase 1 (year 1995) or by the starting of Phase 2 (year 2000). The total capital costs including the 10% capital interest for installing scrubbers is $719,430,000. The cost is spread over three years, $143,850,000; $503,610,000; $71,970,000. * There is depreciation amounts involved for the investments in installing scrubbers. * The additional operating cost is $0.0013 per kilowatt hour that amounts to a total cost of $28,016,300 per kilowatt hour for each year * Also, the operation of Scrubbers uses 2% of the total electricity generated, which means 2% of the total revenue generated every year which has the value of $24,137,120. After adding the benefits of tax deductible expenses and depreciation values, the net present value of cost in this option is $451,531,619 if the Scrubbers are ready to be used in Phase 1 (as shown in Exhibit Ã¢â¬Å"Option2AÃ¢â¬ ). If the Scrubbers are ready to be used in Phase 2 the net present value comes out to be $293,959,184 (shown in Exhibit Ã¢â¬Å"Option2BÃ¢â¬ ). The advantages of using this approach are that there is a very low emission level of sulfur dioxide, and we can earn revenue by selling allowances. Also, we are sure that there willÃ be firms ready to buy those allowances. This option also is beneficial for the environment. The issue with this approach is that we are the net present value of the cost is high. Also, we will be investing atleast $293,959,184 in the plant which we are sure will be operational for only a few more years, till 2016. With the advancement in technology, there are higher chances of new more efficient plants to come on stream even earlier. Option 3: Burning Low-Sulfur Coal In this option, we consider changing the type of coal that is burnt in the plant. We can switch to low sulfur coal which contains 1% sulfur by weight and so will reduce the emission of sulfur dioxide in the environment. The information that is available to analyze this option is: * Cost of low- sulfur coal from 1996 is $30.37 per ton and is expected to rise to $34.92 per ton from 2000. In years 1992-1995, coal used in the plant will be high-sulfur coal which has the cost of $41.46 per ton * The amount of sulfur dioxide emitted is 16750 tons for burning 8.391 million of low-sulfur coal starting 1996 and so we would have to buy emission allowances for the years 1995, 2000-2016 and we will generate revenue in years 1996-1999 by selling the excess of emission allowance. * The first cost in this method will be the cost of switching from high-sulfur coal to low-sulfur coal. The amount and cost of high-sulfur coal required to generate 21,551 million kilowatt hours every year is different from the low-sulfur coal rate and quantity. There is an overall increase in the cost when operations are switched from high-sulfur coal to low-sulfur coal as shown in Exhibit Ã¢â¬Å"Option3Ã¢â¬ . * Switching to low-sulfur coals also need changes in the existing electrostatic precipitators used to control airborne particulate matter as it is currently designed for operating with high-sulfur coal. The costs for upgrading the electrostatic precipitators for low-sulfur coal is $22.1 million * There is depreciation amounts involved for the investments for upgrading electrostatic precipitators. After adding the benefits of tax deductible expenses and depreciation values, the net present value of cost in this option is $176,919,328 (as shown in Exhibit Ã¢â¬Å"Option3Ã¢â¬ ). The advantages of using this approach are that the net present value of the costs is the lowest and so is most beneficial for theÃ Southern Company. There is relatively lower emission level of sulfur dioxide. Although we have to buy allowances in most of the years, still the lower levels are better for the environment. The issue with this approach is that we are the investing a $22.1 million in the plant and we are depending on the new type of coal whose cost is expected to rise over the years. Conclusions and Concerns: After analyzing all the three available options, I would conclude that the best option to be deployed is Option 3: Burn low-sulfur coal. This option does not only have the least cost but is also beneficial for the environment. The option will generate higher profits for the company and we can have even a lower cost, if the price of the low sulfur coal does not rise and is negotiable. Also, there can be a possibility that the changes in the electricity precipitator for low-sulfur coal could decrease the emission levels. The major concern with this option is that we have to either find firms willing to sell their allowances (although a small amount) or would have to decrease the amount of electricity generated to adjust the sulfur dioxide emissions which will impact the revenues but since the amounts are low, the revenues will not be affected adversely.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Adam Smith vs. Karl Marx - Essay Example Karl Marx was a political scientist and economist from Germany who lived in the years 1818 to 1883. He analyzed capitalism in a revolutionary and pessimistic viewpoint. Marx concept was that the capitalist set the means of production while the laborer created the value of the products. Marx argued that capitalistÃ¢â¬â¢s profits are as a result of labor exploitation. It implies that, workers are paid low salaries compared to the value they create on the products to create profits. He, therefore, disliked the organizations that were deemed as profit- oriented (Landauer 356).Ã Marx argued that labor exploitation is the struggle and future downfall of the capitalism practices. To Marx, the tension between the workers and capitalists will intensify over time as the business grows (Landauer 356). The growth of the tension is due to large outfitsÃ¢â¬â¢ inherent efficiency and their ability to go through the ever-ending system crisis. Marx argument was that the world is moving to a sys tem of two classes. The classes are few capitalists that are wealthy and a mass of underprivileged, unpaid workers. He, therefore, predicted capitalism fall and society movement towards communism. Marx described communism to be a scenario in which the workers will own the production means. They will therefore not exploit their labor in return for profit. His thinking affected several societies, including the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the 20th century.Ã Application of Marx theory in real life situation has led to two main deficiencies.
Sunday, July 28, 2019
The United States Economic - Term Paper Example It is thus important to analyze the macroeconomic causes and implications of price increase of commodities, collapse of the housing market and the ensuing financial turmoil. Main Body The global economy is currently in the grip of the maximum macroeconomic uncertainty in the last 25 years because prices of major commodities such as corn, coal, natural gas and oil have been consistently increasing in being triggered partly by the rapid increase in demand in developing countries such as China and India. However the prices in the housing sector, especially in the US have been declining. Housing prices in the US have fallen by almost 25 percent in relation to the 2006 peak period. The consequent financial turbulence that overwhelmed the world economy after September 2007 continues to retain its intensity in adversely impacting several sectors in the US economy. Although a number of economic forces have worked in creating this adverse macroeconomic situation, the two main causes have been the increase in the prices of basic commodities and the quick weakening of the housing market. ... Prices rose sharply because of many reasons but primarily due to the increasing demand for oil in many developing countries, even while prices of other commodities were rising. It is noteworthy that during the last 20 years global oil demand and consumption has increased considerably. For instance, consequent to the economic downturn in 2008, there was a decline in demand for oil in the US and in many European countries, but the decline was equalized by increased demand for the commodity in countries such as India, Middle East and China. In the US, factors such as poor crop yield, macroeconomic volatility and supply disruption appeared to have contributed in worsening the movement of prices (Jones, 2008). Another major macroeconomic shock to the US has been the large scale decline in housing prices that have been declining since 2006. Housing demand in the US was fuelled by demand created by the new economies of the late 1990s, by low interest rates during the initial years of the 20 00s and because of the constant loosening of lending policies. In view of such artificially created economic circumstances, housing prices in the US rose drastically prior to 2006 but soon started declining and by 2008 had declined by 20 percent. The beginning of the financial turmoil and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic woes lies in the position of its housing market after 2006. People were attracted by low interest rates, flexible lending norms and by the perceptions that housing prices will continue to increase. As a result, large number of subprime borrowers who did not meet the credit standards in terms of credit record and application requirements were allowed to take credit and to buy homes. It is on record that during
Saturday, July 27, 2019
E-government Program of Saudi Arabia - Dissertation Example In conclusion, the implementation of the Yesser program will allow technology to be used as a way of further refining existing processes in order to eventually promote economic growth. As such, most countries nowadays have their own e-government program which they use to achieve their own ends. Table 14. Frequency and percentage breakdown: The countrys economy would improve upon the implementation of the Yesser program, in the aspect that investors would find it easier to transact with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (government employees). Table 21. Frequency and percentage breakdown: The implementation of the e-government program would allow a better medium for sharing knowledge and information within government agencies (government employees). On a global scale, governments have placed high importance on the adoption of a new program referred to as e-government, as it resembles a fundamental change in the structure of any nations public sector and cultivation of culture (Silcock 2001; Lofstedt, 2005). In addition, it is also beneficial in the process of conducting business through the utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools in government agencies. Prior to the introduction of such a concept, public sectors mainly focused on internal automation through the utilization of data processing machines as a means to gain efficiency in processing e-government services. The Saudi government has adopted an e-government program for political, economic, social and technological reasons.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Research paper - Essay Example Type III, commonly called Cyclothymia, is a less severe form of this condition. The person undergoes cycles of mild mania and/or depression. At times, when undetected, it could progress to either the type I or II variant. Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness and it significantly affects the lifestyle of the patient on a social and professional basis, and quite often impairs their cognitive functioning. Depression is the phase of BD that represents the greatest challenge in management of the disorder. Undetected or prolonged depression and delirium is a frequent cause of suicide, and thus it is imperative that this condition be dealt with sensitively. The depression: mania ratio in bipolar disorder is 1:3, which tells us that the patient spends more time in an all-time low (Galvez, Thommi, & Ghaemi, 2011) . Heredity and Statistics: The possibility of inheriting BD from a previously diagnosed parent is 86-90% and studies over the past 11 years have shown that 9% of unipolar depressive patients were diagnosed as having BD. The suicide rate in these patients is almost 17 times higher, as compared to the general healthy adult population (Rapoport, Basselin, Kim, & Rao, 2009). In addition to being a social burden, BD has equal implications on personal finances and world economy. Within the USA itself, the treatment regimen spans from $12000 for a single episode of this syndrome, to a whopping $62K for patients who have to be aggressively managed with drugs and other therapy. Typically, symptoms of BD appear by the average age of 22 years, but are recognized and diagnosed with a lag period of almost 10 years. Even after commencement of therapy, the subject may remain symptomatic for a significant period of time, which makes it essential to continually monitor and adjust the treatment protocol (Nivoli et al., 2011). It has been reported that more than 66% of patients have a minimum of one close relative that has been diagnosed with either unipolar or bipolar depressio n, thus linking it to heredity (Nivoli et al., 2011). Characteristics and symptoms of people with Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms of varying degrees and intensities can be observed in this syndrome. The most common observation in Type I BD is extreme mood fluctuations. The highs include excitement, overly enthusiastic behavior, boundless energy, megalomaniac tendencies, generous thoughts and a surge in confidence levels. The lows that one typically experiences are prolonged periods of depression, irritability, sleep deprivation and a general feeling of loneliness, often accompanied by phases of crying for trivial or no apparent reasons. It is very common to have feelings of being incomplete, inadequate and worthless, which eventually culminates into thoughts and ideas of suicide. The hallmark of this disorder is the frequent cycling between the high and lows, namely the mania and depression, by virtue of which this disorder is detected. Social Challenges: Needless to mention, social stig ma is commonly encountered by people, who are aware and informed that they are suffering from this syndrome. Such subjects consciously modify their behavior, in order to reduce the instances of being rejected or discriminated. In the mild to moderate symptoms in Type
Community Corrections - Research Paper Example In sum, Ã¢â¬Å"The goals of community corrections are to contribute to public safety and reduce future criminal conduct.Ã¢â¬ (Martin, 2006) How Do Community Corrections Affect the Society in Which They Are Practiced? Community corrections consist of a number of criminological treatment regimens that are designed from both forensic and psychiatric perspectives. These include counseling, medication, and various other sorts of interventions involving drug/alcohol treatment, cognitive restructuring to prevent sexual offences, anger management, and mental treatment. The effect of these practices can be very positive toward the society at large. Instead of punishment, re-offending, and repeated punishment, community corrections aim at offender specific treatment and rehabilitation, which can minimize prison costs, arouse human values among the offenders, prevent recidivism, and prevent death penalties or life imprisonments. Thus, reduction of criminal behavior and mentality change of th e offenders through community corrections play a constructive role in the society. Hypothesis Community corrections can not only prevent recidivism through rehabilitation but also bring down the economic overheads of maintaining large prison systems. Prison System of Foreign Countries Unlike America, several foreign countries often undermine the human rights aspects of the correctional system. In these countries, correctional systems depended on the prison systems and community corrections remain a neglect field of criminology and rehabilitation. Less technical know-how, ignorance, budgetary restrictions, etc. are the main reasons behind the primitiveness of community corrections in foreign countries. Prisons thus become a means of elimination and isolation rather than correction and rehabilitation. Views of the Other Nations on Imprisonment Most of the other nations have stricter implications for handling offenders. They aim to isolate the offender from the rest of the society. Gen erally due to budgetary constraints and lack of research, prisons in the other parts of the world have very strict code of conduct. And where corruptions are prevalent, prisoners are often systematically exploited and tortured. Authoritarian countries often resort to repression and prisons become concentration camps. Some countries manage to maintain high level of discipline, while others have a highly corrupt prison system. If United States Adopt the Prison System of Another CountryÃ¢â¬ ¦ For the purpose of this paper, letÃ¢â¬â¢s chose the example of the prison system of Japan. According to Cavadino and Dignan (2006, p. 184): Ã¢â¬Å"One of the most striking aspects of Japanese prison life, at least in the eyes of Western observers, is the extent to which it appears to repressively regimented by a highly detailed and restrictive set of prison rules, covering virtually every aspect of a prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life.Ã¢â¬ Japanese prison system has an impressive orderliness, whic h is manifest by the fact that incidents of prison riots and prison breaking are very low in Japan. However, such incidents are often encountered in the prisons of the Western countries like United States. Therefore, if the Japanese prison system is adopted, the focus of law enforcing bodies will be at the restructuring of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s prison system. Like Japan, United States would also start putting less emphasis on community correct
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Exploring the Violence in Television and Its Effect in Childrens Psyche - Essay Example Violent content is 9 percent above average in children's programming, and cartoons are the most violent (Center for Communication and Social Policy, 1998). We are all aware that our daily lives are studded with different types of violence. Social psychologists have asserted that much of our behavior is learned by watching others. And what do children see on TV They are exposed to more violence. This further validates what the children have seen in the neighborhood, it makes violence such normal fare -- everyone's doing it, not just in their neighborhood, but all over world. More than the adults, it is the children that have greater propensity to imitate the things they have watched on television. For them, TV represents violence as an appropriate way to solve interpersonal problems, to get what you want out of life, avenge slight injuries and insults and make up for perceived injustices. How extreme is the problem of violence in television Does it really transmit aggressive behavior to children Does it affect their psychological health This paper will try to tackle the link of TV violence and aggression to young viewers and try to analyze what are the possible solutions that can be done to thwart the incremental effects of violence in television. Two large scale studies--the University of P... They counted the number of violent acts using the definition, "the overt expression of physical force, with or without weapon, against self or other, compelling action against one's will on pain of being hurt or killed, or actually hurting or killing" (Gerbner et al. 1978, p. 179). Furthermore, they required that the violence be plausible and credible, which rules out idle threats, verbal abuse, or comic gestures with no credible violent consequences. The violence may be intentional or accidental. In addition, violent accidents, catastrophes, and acts of nature are included. Signorielli (1990) clarified: Any act that fits the definition, regardless of conventional notions about types of violence that may have "serious" effects, is coded. This includes violence that occurs in realistic, serious, fantasy, or humorous contexts. "Accidental" violence and "acts of nature" are recorded because they are always purposeful in fiction, claim victims, and demonstrate power (p. 89). On the other hand, the NTVS (1996) analyzed more than 10,000 hours of television programming across 23 channels over 3 years using the definition of violence as: An overt depiction of a credible threat of physical force or the actual use of such force intended to physically harm an animate being or group of beings. Violence also includes certain depictions of physically harmful consequences against an animate being or group that occur as a result of unseen violent means (p. 1-48). Their interpretation of violence in media messages is based more on harm to viewers than on harm to media characters. It is known that a very small percentage of violent
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Some thing has related about ENVI - Essay Example Demand for products of crop farming in Indiana is ideal. There is an active growth in demand for products of crop farming. Moreover, the demand for farm products imports is also high. This indicates that the available supply of farm products does not satisfy the current demand. Indiana spends between 1-9.9 billion dollars for farm produce imports (Hicks, 2014). This raises concerns about the farm products production capacity of Indiana. Many forests have been cleared for the sake of creating agricultural farms. A big percentage of forest land in Indiana is privately owned (Our Land Our Literature, 2014). Therefore, there lacks national control measures for deforestation. Deforestation has resulted into reduced rains and thus reduced agricultural productivity. Moreover deforestation also destroys the natural habitat of animals and birds. Although organizations such as Indiana Forest Alliance and Heartwood have come out to educate people on the need to stop deforestation, there is still a lot to be done. The forest cover in Indiana has reduced by 59% in the last thirty years (Alexander, 2013). The agricultural sector is at high danger of collapsing due to poor climate. If campaigns against deforestation are not carried out, Indiana might spend more than 10 billion in imports for farm products. If nothing is done, the currently growing population is bound to experience challenges such as famine and hiked prices of farm products. Hicks,Ã M.Ã J. (2014).Ã Key Economic Sectors in Indiana: State Overview. Retrieved from Center for Business and Economic Research, Ball State University. website:
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Assignment is to read both articles and summarize the main points of each - Essay Example This group of free market think tanks and contrarian scientists has ceaselessly worked towards creating a paralyzing thick fog of doubt around the issue of climate change. The group was seen to first claim that the earth was not warming and the current warming being experienced was natural and its effects would be harmless and minuscule. Newsweek polls showed that only 46 percent of Americans believe that the greenhouse effect is currently being felt today (Begley 22). Several states such as California, New Jersey and Minnesota has recently signed laws targeted at reducing their carbon emissions levels by up to 80% by the year 2050. In January 2007, nine different corporations including, Caterpillar and General Electric were seen to actively call on Congress to enact various strong national legislation that reduce the level of emissions attributed to greenhouse gases (Begley 22). On June 23rd, 1988, James Hansen who was a NASA climatologist presented a testimony before congress on how the greenhouse effect had been detected and was currently in the process of changing the planetÃ¢â¬â¢s climate. This testimony caused the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s science community to work together in an attempt to resolve and better explain the issue of climate change. This move caused several industry associations and individual companies to form various lobby groups like the Information Council on the Environment (ICE) and the Global Climate Coalition (GCC) to try and cast doubt on the effects of climate change in a similar manner to how doubt had been cast on the effects of smoking (Begley 23). The United Nations organized a summit dubbed Ã¢â¬Å"Earth SummitÃ¢â¬ in 1992, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both the ICE and the GCC lobbied against the recommendations made during the Earth Summit successfully managed to convince the American President Bush not to mandatory cut back into law. The Rio treaty had been seen to call on all countries to try and stabilize their greenhouse emissions by
Monday, July 22, 2019
President Obama Essay Obamanomics is basically a system where the government works from the Bottom up for more equality for all people. This system will benefit the working and middle class, and higher taxes for the wealthy 1% of our population. This means better living wages, better schools, universal Healthcare, less taxes for small businesses and a regulated system on wall street. Obamanomics will give the american people employment with Jobs in both the public and private sector; And make education more Affordable for every child with better paying teachers. President Obama is also dealing with the environment and the quality of food the American people place on their tables. His ultimate plan is for a world where less warfare will be produced by every country for a safer And freer world for all Americans and abroad. The american people think obamanomics will break the economy and leave the country bankrupt. However, it will work in the years to come with adjustments taken place until obamanomics is perfected and every american has benefited from it greatly.
Monsato Company Ã¢â¬â A Question in Agricultural Ethics Essay Monsato Company is a Missouri-based company founded in 1901 by John F. Queeny and his wife Olga Monsato producing saccharine. In the mid-1940s, Monsato Co. began developing agricultural chemicals and throughout the 1960s and 1970s, herbicides were developed and introduced to the farmers. In 1981, a research group was established and the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s primary focus was molecular biotechnology. In 1982, Monsato Co. bought Jacob Hartz Seed Co., a company known in the Midwest for its soybeen seeds. Also in 1982, scientists working for Monsato Co. produced the first genetically modified plant. In 1996, RoundUp Ready Soybeans were introduced possessing an in-seed herbicide. Several other in-seed herbicides are introduced in 1997 by Monsato Co. such as RoundUp Ready Cotton and RoundUp Ready Canola. Also introduced is an in-seed insect protection called YieldGard Corn Borer. In 1998, Monsato Co. combines the technology of in-seed herbicides with their in-seed insecticides into one product for its corn seed. In 2002, Monsato Co. identifies corn hybrids, which yield more ethanol per bushel than normal corn. Later this same year, they also identify a similar hybrid in their soybeans, which will produce more oil than a normal soybean. In 2004, Monsato Co. creates American Seeds, Inc (ASI) to support regional seed business with capital, genetics, and technology investments. In 2005, Monsato Co. acquires four companies Fontanelle Hybrids, based in Fontanelle, Neb, Stewart Seeds, based in Greensburg, Ind., Trelay Seeds, based in Livingston, Wis., and Stone Seeds, based in Pleasant Plains, Ill. In 2006, they acquire several other local seed companies, some family-owned, including Diener Seeds, Sieben Hybrids, Kruger Seed Company, Trisler Seed Farms, Gold Country Seed, Inc., Heritage Seeds and Campbell Seed. Over the next several years, they also acquire other local and regional companies and continue their research and development of genetically altered seeds. Over the course of a few decades, Monsato Co. has gone from a small company making saccharine to a Midwest agricultural giant manufacturing genetically altered seed. 1 A Possible Solution: Deregulation Although the idea of producing more crops with less cost, such as additional chemicals, pesticides, and herbicides may sound, the fact remains that Monsato Co. is not only toying with nature, they are also putting smaller family-owned companies out of business. In the past several years, organic foods have become more popular. Consumers want to feed their families healthy food, not food filled with chemicals. In 2005, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) decided to back Monsato and other biotech companies by supporting the deregulation of genetically engineered (GE) alfalfa. This would mean that the GE companies would have no restrictions on their technology and its use.2 Deregulation has its obvious problems. Organic crop company leaders, such as Stonyfield, Whole Foods, and OrganicValley believe that GE crops use a higher amount of toxins, herbicides, and water. Also the claims of higher crop yield will not be met and the price of this seed will be too costly for the average farmer. There is also the potential of cross-contamination of crops where a farmer using GE seed spreads the toxins to his organic neighbor through groundwater. This could lead to the organic farmerÃ¢â¬â¢s crops getting contaminated and his losing his license to sell organic products. Stonyfield and other organic companies opposed this ruling and in 2010 it went to the Supreme Court. The decision was that deregulation could not take place without the USDA making an environmental assessment of the genetically enhanced seeds used, and an injunction was put in place preventing the planting of GE alfalfa seeds. David and Goliath Biotech companies lobbied heavily in Washington. However, the smaller organic supporters caught the ear of the USDA and as a result persuaded them to conduct a meeting of the minds of both sides. The problem was clear Ã¢â¬â there was an incredible amount of support, political and financial, in favor of GE alfalfa. The result was that the UDSA would allow deregulation. The organic companies and farmers were faced with the fact that GE alfalfa was here to stay. What was left to fight over was whether it would be complete deregulation or one with restrictions. In their opinion, it was better to have some measure of control than no control at all, so the organic community stayed and fought. They brought to the table demands for reassurance that Ã¢â¬Å"(a) organic farmers whose crops become contaminated by GE alfalfa must be compensated by the patent holders for their losses due to losing their organic certification and (b) the USDA must oversee all testing and monitoring of GE crops t o ensure compliance as part of its role in protecting all US agriculture.Ã¢â¬ 3 The organic community won that portion of the battle. Conclusion The organic community may have won that battle, but they lost the war. Chemical companies and genetically engineered seed are a mainstay in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s agriculture. Along with that they bring with them the potential for contaminated soil and damaged and lost crops of the small, everyday farmer. These farmers and family-owned businesses are being swallowed up on a regular basis. As the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population grows so does the demand for an ever increasing need of better, more enhanced, products. Technology provides us with the knowledge and growth for these, but in its wake leaves behind the things that matter very much to clean air, clean soil, fresh water and Ã¢â¬Å"pureÃ¢â¬ food. References 1) Monsato. (2010). Monsato. Retrieved from http://www.monsanto.com 2) Pearson, C. (2010, March). The Most Unethical Company is also Best Corporate Citizen. Cause Integration http://www.causeintegration.com/2010/ the-most-unethical-companyis-a-best-corporate-citizen-what-gives/ 3) Hirshberg, G. (2011, January). Speaking with One Voice to Stop Monsato and Biotech. Huffington Post, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/gary-hirshberg/speaking-with-one-voice-t_b_816447.html
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Risk Factors for Disease Outbreak Diseases are the disturbance of body processes impacting homeostasis, the emergence and resurgence of diseases is majorly dependent on social, ecological and geographical change rather than the molecular or microbiological aspects (Mayer, 2000). This essay will cover the growing evidence that climate change poses health concerns for the future decadeÃ¢â¬â¢s thus increasing morbidity and mortality in many continents. Climate changes and the extremities of weather events have profound impacts on infectious diseases for example viruses and protozoa and vectors such as mosquitoes and ticks, their reproduction patterns are disturbed by the extremities of the weather (Gubler et al., 2001). This paper will also explore the ways in which technology such as aeroplanes and aircraft produces new initiatives to prevent transmission of diseases among different countries. The population density is measurable during a fixed time period where the average contact with susceptible individuals by eac h person explores the rate of spreading diseases among communities. Climate change and global warming has serious implications to human life involving the human regions and their interactions with the causative disease agent (Khasnis Nettleman, 2005). Climate change is a key determinant of health as the weather affects the timing and concentration whereas climate constrains the range of infectious diseases of the outbreaks (Dobson Carper, 1993). Global warming is encouraging the spread of infectious diseases geographically as extreme weather can also bring sparks of different diseases (Epstein et al., 1998).The meteorological conditions and climate change are unpredictable as they constantly redistribute and spread infectious diseases, examples include AIDS, Lyme disease, toxic Escherichia Coli. The increase of greenhouse gases is due to the correlation between population size and global warming. The rising temperatures are predicted to continue and precipitation is likely to increase however rainfall may be erratic, leading to floods and droughts. Some scientists have hypothesised that the increase in temperatures will kill of the plants and therefore reduce surface area for evaporation making it adaptable areas for new diseases and pathogens to arise. The most striking example of health risks from climate change is shown in the summer of 2003 where EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s temperatures were 3.5C above normal temperatures and 22,000 to 45,000 heat-related deaths occurred (Campbell-Lendrum, Holloway, Foley, 2005). However results comparing the weather outcomes that year show that with or without anthropogenic drivers the weather doubled as a result from human induced climate changes (Stott, Stone, Allen, 2004). Global warming is known to bring about change and some conclude that diseases will come more abundant when the earth warms up, however it majorly depends on the magnitude and the speed of these changes. When communities exhaust the environmental resources and infrastructures they allow for infectious disease to cascade across continents and populations. The extremities in the weather cycle can destabilise the biological and physical systems of our world. Due to changes in the weather patterns and the repeated winter thawing and refreezing, reduction in forest mechanisms and defences and thus the human population becomes vulnerable to disease and pest infestations, and the shifts in seasons also alter rhythms of predators, and the natural biological controls (Lindgren, TÃ ¤lleklint, Polfeldt, 2000). The increase in mortality and morbidity is due to extremes in both hot and cold weathers.The WHO organisation estamated that around 800 million people are undernorished due to living in areas and countries of drought and other climate extremes which thus affects their crops and food supplies hence leading to alterations in plant pathogens leading to new diseases or the reintorduction of old diseases. The constant changes in urbanisation, human activities along with biological factors such as mutation, genetics factors and changes in the genetic pool affect the rate of emergence of new infectious diseases. Importantly the economic and political stresses may destroy the health system infrastructure, leaving the population unprepared for any sudden epidemics. The interaction between the human population and the environment can be disturbed by various changes including land usage; migration and population pressure and thus reflect the significant mal-adaptation through the appearance or diffusion of new diseases (Mayer, 2000). The lack of disequlibrium in the economy is shown in an example of the incidence of schistosomiasis following the construction of the Aswan Dam, and the increase in schistosomiasis, malaria and other infectious diseases following the Volta River project in Africa.Water sources and its various contaminations and the insufficiency of it can enhance the process of transmitting diseases among a population. Deforestation and changes in land use patterns have been shown to spread transmission of diseases between the animal world and the humans, especially when forests are destroyed to make way for residential and commercial usage. Water is a huge necessity, yet 1.1 billion people in the world do not have access to it and 2.4 billion people do not have access to sanitation (Cairncross, 2003). In order to ensure supply various approaches have already been used such as polices to eliminate profiteering, efficient management of available water, improved technology and integrating agricultural policies. Contaminated water is the source of epidemics such as cholera, typhoid and other similar diseases. Esrey, Potash, Roberts, Shiff, in 1991 conducted research and found that it is possible to reduce diseases by clean water and sanitations some of his statistics show this: Ã¢â¬Å"diarrhoea (26%), ascariasis (29%), guinea worm infection (78%), schistosomiasis (77%), trachoma (27%) and a median reduction of 65% in diarrhoea-specific mortality and 55% in general child mortality.Ã¢â¬ Emerging diseases are hard to define as they may have been present at one time in a community in either low of high levels for example a disease like dengue fever is emerging in the US but has been known for many years in Latin America. Travelling from one country to another can assist the diffusion of diseases in several manners; firstly human can act as vectors and carry around diseases from one region to another. Also transportation vehicles can act as mechanical vectors such as the dengue case where it was transported from Asia to the US by automobile tires and ships as it provided for ideal surviving conditions such as a damp and wet environment. Modern transport systems are efficient and fast thus placing people in danger from emerging new disease or new strands of known diseases and pathogens (GuimerÃ , Mossa, Turtschi, Amaral, 2005). Spatial diffusion involves the changes in travel patterns that have dramatically changed the ecology of infectious diseases. Garrett in 1996, estimated that approximately one million people travel internationally a day and one million travel from developed to non-developed countries per week therefore disease can be transmitted in a matter of a day. And as diffusion is rapid such as with influenza where viral replication takes place in the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract and then transmitted through airborne route. This reflects how spatial diffusion is the main cause of diffuses of HIV/AIDS. Pathogens have relatively simple DNA/RNA and any minor changes in the nucleotides can mutate to make a new disease that humans lack immunity for. The development of antimicrobial-resistant ag ents is also a major problem for populations around both the developed and undeveloped world. Social factors such as homelessness, poverty and migration make it hard to control specific diseases as there are a limited number of antimicrobials available. The emergence of aeroplanes is notably the one that increased the speed of travel and over time introduced Ã¢â¬ËnewÃ¢â¬â¢ diseases and re-surfaced Ã¢â¬ËoldÃ¢â¬â¢ diseases, and therefore the national borders are not very secure in terms of quarantine. Other modes of transport includes rail travel which also have surveillance on both departure and arrival routes (Budd, Bell, Brown, 2009). The mobility of infectious diseases is on the rise and several public health interventions have tried to limit this by focusing on the increase in international air travel around the world (Avila, SaÃ ¯d, Ojcius, 2008). The aircraft passenger cabin transmits diseases consistently; although the cabin is ventilated it exposes individuals to hypobaric and dry humidity between travellers. The close spaces allows for disease to be re-circulated throughout the cabin. One technique of reducing this transmission is through supplying fresh air to cabins in a circulation pattern (Mangili Gendreau, 2005). Specific use of technological filters in aeroplanes such as HEAP filters have the efficiency rate of 99.97% of removing particles in the cabins such as dust, vapours and fungi, these are effective as viruses spread by droplets of nuclei. There is four different methods of the spread of microorganisms, these include direct contact or with a contaminated object, airborne, common vehicle (usua lly through foods and drinks) and vector-borne diseases by insects or vermin. Many are concerned that the airborne particles on an aeroplane is transported throughout the cabins due to the ventilation systems and therefore this has been the focus media investigations throughout the last few centuries and criticism from many special interest organisations (Withers Christopher, 2000). Tuberculosis has been a threat for many years and is estimated that a third of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population have it. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is the most spread in airborne pathogens abroad plans. An example is shown in Kenyon, Valway, Ihle, Onorato, Castro, 1996 papers Ã¢â¬Å"travelling from Baltimore to Chicago and then on to Honolulu. Four of 15 fellow passengers seated within two rows of the index passenger had positive tuberculin skin test conversionÃ¢â¬ . There has also been evidence that human hygiene plays a big role therefore all aircraft now have guidelines for hand hygiene in bathrooms and kitchens. Appropriate quarantine levels must be taken to reduce the exposure of these diseases among passengers, thus the governments and international laws have provided specific legal laws that control the movement of travellers and this can include issuing travel alerts to quarantine of passengerÃ¢â¬â¢s upon departure and arrival. Climate change, social and ecological factors play an ever-increasing role in the resurgence and redistribution of infectious diseases. The increase in mobility of air and rail transport is increasing the transmission of diseases from passenger to passenger and also after and before the flights. The transmission of diseases probably happens a lot more than reported due to numerous reasons including reporting bias and the fact that various diseases have a longer incubation period than that of air travel. Further research and assessments of risk must be taken in order to reflect insights of disease transmissions with transportation and thus control the increase in transmitted diseases from one individual to another. The government and the medical industry are educating the general public about health issues whether they relate to travel or any other human life aspects. Dynamic diseases are increased due to the increase of population density of human who facilitate for the transmission of diseases and infectious organisms (Lindgren, TÃ ¤lleklint, Polfeldt, 2000). The widespread of environment degradation also contributes to the increase of diseases along with the rapid increase in population numbers. Rapid demographic, technological, social and environmental changes in lifestyles can introduce new diseases due to the changes made to lifestyles. Climate change is an example, as it brings about an epidemic of diseases and microorganisms to societies due to the extremities of its changes in weather conditions altering lifestyles. Reference list: Avila, M., SaÃ ¯d, N., Ojcius, D. M. (2008). The book reopened on infectious diseases. Microbes and Infection, 10(9), 942-947. Boyce, J. M., Pittet, D. (2002). Guideline for hand hygiene in health-care settings. American journal of infection control, 30(8), 1-46. Budd, L., Bell, M., Brown, T. (2009). Of plagues, planes and politics: controlling the global spread of infectious diseases by air. Political Geography, 28(7), 426-435. Cairncross, S. (2003). Sanitation in the developing world: current status and future solutions. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 13(S1), S123-S131. Dobson, A., Carper, E. (1993). Health and climate change: Biodiversity. Lancet, 342, 1096-1099. Epstein, P. R., Diaz, H. F., Elias, S., Grabherr, G., Graham, N. E., Martens, W. J., . . . Susskind, J. (1998). Biological and physical signs of climate change: focus on mosquito-borne diseases. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(3), 409-417. Esrey, S. A., Potash, J. B., Roberts, L., Shiff, C. (1991). Effects of improved water supply and sanitation on ascariasis, diarrhoea, dracunculiasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Bulletin of the World Health organization, 69(5), 609. Gubler, D. J., Reiter, P., Ebi, K. L., Yap, W., Nasci, R., Patz, J. A. (2001). Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector-and rodent-borne diseases. Environmental health perspectives, 109(Suppl 2), 223. GuimerÃ , R., Mossa, S., Turtschi, A., Amaral, L. N. (2005). The worldwide air transportation network: Anomalous centrality, community structure, and cities global roles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(22), 7794-7799. Kenyon, T. A., Valway, S. E., Ihle, W. W., Onorato, I. M., Castro, K. G. (1996). Transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis during a long airplane flight. New England Journal of Medicine, 334(15), 933-938. Khasnis, A. A., Nettleman, M. D. (2005). Global warming and infectious disease. Archives of medical research, 36(6), 689-696. Lederberg, J., Shope, R. E., Oaks Jr, S. C. (1992). Emerging infections: microbial threats to health in the United States: National Academies Press. Lindgren, E., TÃ ¤lleklint, L., Polfeldt, T. (2000). Impact of climatic change on the northern latitude limit and population density of the disease-transmitting European tick Ixodes ricinus. Environmental health perspectives, 108(2), 119. Mangili, A., Gendreau, M. A. (2005). Transmission of infectious diseases during commercial air travel. The Lancet, 365(9463), 989-996. Mayer, J. D. (2000). Geography, ecology and emerging infectious diseases. Social science medicine, 50(7), 937-952. Patz, J. A., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Holloway, T., Foley, J. A. (2005). Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature, 438(7066), 310-317. Patz, J. A., Epstein, P. R., Burke, T. A., Balbus, J. M. (1996). Global climate change and emerging infectious diseases. Jama, 275(3), 217-223. Stott, P. A., Stone, D. A., Allen, M. R. (2004). Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003. Nature, 432(7017), 610-614. Withers, M. R., Christopher, G. W. (2000). Aeromedical evacuation of biological warfare casualties: a treatise on infectious diseases on aircraft. Military medicine, 165(11 Suppl), 1-21.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Should I do it now or wait till later? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Every person has their own style or way they accomplish doing work. Many feel the need to begin working on an assignment right when they get it. While others procrastinate and do not complete the assignment until right before it is due. There are many different attitudes that one may have when dealing with work. Everyone accomplishes work in their own way. Many feel the need to do their work right away, while some procrastinate to finish their work Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã While looking at the way a person completes their work, there is the issue of revision. Some may believe that if one does their work right away, there is a higher quality of revision, resulting in higher quality work. This may be thought true because it gives the person more time to look over their work and revise it. Also, it allows one extra time to get help with the structure of their paper, project, presentation, etc. Even though all these points may be seemingly true, many people wait until the last minute to complete their work. Procrastination is seen most when revising work. People often miss mistakes that they might have seen if they had not procrastinated. When cutting the time, people often rush and make many mistakes that they would not have if they had the proper time. While revising, they still have fresh in their mind what the project or paper should look like, and see it how they think it should be. This in turn, makes them miss mistakes they might have seen if they had the appropriate amount of time to properly revise. Many argue the issue of the quality of work when comparing those who do things right away and those who procrastinate. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another issue with doing your work right away versus procrastinating is the availability of needed resources. When beginning your work right away, you have time to schedule out where and when you need to go to get the appropriate resources. The worker has time to plan out when to go when things are open, order any supplies needed, or schedule any interviews. Beginning your work right away allows the worker to get all the necessary resources, in order to produce the best work that he or she can. Procrastinating shortens the amount of time that one can get their necessary resources. If the worker waits till the last minute, they might not be aware of all the parts needed for their assignment.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Comparing God in Daisy Miller, Huck Finn, and Country of the Pointed Firs :: comparison compare contrast essays
Eliminating God in Daisy Miller, Huckleberry Finn, and The Country of the Pointed Firs Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The evils of the Civil War and the rise of empiricism caused many to doubt in an omniscient, all-powerful God.Ã Under empiricism, any statements about metaphysical entities (e.g. God, Unicorns, Love, and Beauty) would be meaningless terms because they cannot be proven by the scientific method. But with a loss of faith in God, what becomes of morality?Ã Ã This essay will examine how Emily Dickinson, Sarah Orne Jewett, Henry James and Mark Twain wrote literature in this age coupled with war, inhumanity and despair in God.Ã This essay will show that: (1) Dickinson destroys any reliance on the Bible and a possibility of knowing God, but argues that one should instead praise Nature, which is tangible; (2) Jewett eliminates the omniscient narrator (or God-like figure) in The Country of the Poited Firs , and instead makes readers see life as valuable onlyÃ through human experiences and reveals the comfort of Nature; (3) Henry James eliminates God i n Daisy Miller by removing the omniscient narrator and instead causing readers to play god, by being the judge of Daisy and Winterbourne; (4) Mark Twain uses Huckleberry Finn to question any reliance on God, by poking fun of prayer and church revivals, and instead encouraging one to seek morality in one's conscience.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Emily Dickinson learned versification through studying her church hymnal.Ã But rather than praise a God that has "hid his rare life" (338), she turned to praise Nature which was tangible and empirical.Ã Dickinson seemed to believe in a God: "I know that He exists" but the belief was greatly hindered by the existence of evil (primarily the atrocities brought on by the Civil War) wherein she penned that His right hand "is amputated now/ And God cannot be found" (1551).Ã This statement may not be as severe as Nietzche's "God is Dead," but one can probably imagine that Dickinson penned these words in tears. Because she believed that God could not be found, she attacked the Bible's ability to convey notions of God:Ã "The Bible is an antique Volume--/ Written by faded Men" (1545).Ã Dickinson found more companionship in her trusty dictionary (which helped define words) than a Bible (which was to define life).Ã To Dickinson, Nature was s upreme; Nature was tangible; Nature was real.Ã Dickinson needed empirical evidence and Nature provided it for her:Ã "'Nature' is what we see/ . Comparing God in Daisy Miller, Huck Finn, and Country of the Pointed Firs :: comparison compare contrast essays Eliminating God in Daisy Miller, Huckleberry Finn, and The Country of the Pointed Firs Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The evils of the Civil War and the rise of empiricism caused many to doubt in an omniscient, all-powerful God.Ã Under empiricism, any statements about metaphysical entities (e.g. God, Unicorns, Love, and Beauty) would be meaningless terms because they cannot be proven by the scientific method. But with a loss of faith in God, what becomes of morality?Ã Ã This essay will examine how Emily Dickinson, Sarah Orne Jewett, Henry James and Mark Twain wrote literature in this age coupled with war, inhumanity and despair in God.Ã This essay will show that: (1) Dickinson destroys any reliance on the Bible and a possibility of knowing God, but argues that one should instead praise Nature, which is tangible; (2) Jewett eliminates the omniscient narrator (or God-like figure) in The Country of the Poited Firs , and instead makes readers see life as valuable onlyÃ through human experiences and reveals the comfort of Nature; (3) Henry James eliminates God i n Daisy Miller by removing the omniscient narrator and instead causing readers to play god, by being the judge of Daisy and Winterbourne; (4) Mark Twain uses Huckleberry Finn to question any reliance on God, by poking fun of prayer and church revivals, and instead encouraging one to seek morality in one's conscience.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Emily Dickinson learned versification through studying her church hymnal.Ã But rather than praise a God that has "hid his rare life" (338), she turned to praise Nature which was tangible and empirical.Ã Dickinson seemed to believe in a God: "I know that He exists" but the belief was greatly hindered by the existence of evil (primarily the atrocities brought on by the Civil War) wherein she penned that His right hand "is amputated now/ And God cannot be found" (1551).Ã This statement may not be as severe as Nietzche's "God is Dead," but one can probably imagine that Dickinson penned these words in tears. Because she believed that God could not be found, she attacked the Bible's ability to convey notions of God:Ã "The Bible is an antique Volume--/ Written by faded Men" (1545).Ã Dickinson found more companionship in her trusty dictionary (which helped define words) than a Bible (which was to define life).Ã To Dickinson, Nature was s upreme; Nature was tangible; Nature was real.Ã Dickinson needed empirical evidence and Nature provided it for her:Ã "'Nature' is what we see/ .
Modernist's Experiments in Heart of Darkness In Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, a chaotic form of writing takes place which is characteristic of the Modernist's experiments in their style of literature of stream-of-consciousness. Written before WWI took place, he spoke of a different type of chaos and uncertainty present in the world at this time; the issue of slavery. Heart of Darkness describes a voyage to Africa, common for the British still, despite the horrific treatment which was apparent of colonization. The chaotic, stream-of-consciousness style Conrad took on helped to display the confusion, and made the reader have to interpret for themselves what they thought the writer meant. Conrad experiments with this style, leaving some sentences without ending: "not a sentimental pretense but an idea;Ã¢â¬ ¦something you can set upÃ¢â¬ ¦and offer a sacrifice toÃ¢â¬ ¦." (Conrad, Longman p. 2195), a very choppy form of literature and causes the reader to fill in the holes and interpret themselves, alone. Conrad skips about from talking of the "two women knitted black wool feverishly" at the gate of the city (of hell), to his aunt which he feels women are "out of touch with truth," to how the British are as "weak-eyed devil(s) of a rapacious and pitiless folly" (Conrad, Longman pp. 2198, 2199, & 2202). Conrad's mind moves about as ours d o along a large duration of literary monologue to convey to the reader the author's ideas, as interpreted by the reader. Conrad's narrative frame also continues his experimentation with literary form in Modernist style. Two separate monologues are present throughout Heart of Darkness. The first part starts out with an unnamed narrator aboard the ship Nelly, describing to himself, as well as to the reader, those aboard the ship, particularly Marlow. At first, the narrator is not known for sure to be a character aboard the ship until a few paragraphs later identify him as a person observing the others-"Between us there was, as I have already said," (Conrad, Longman p.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Should the age allowance of driving be lowered to 16 years? Driving has always been popular among young boys and girls, which goes back for over 100 years ago. The very first automobile was built by Karl Benz which was a German scientist in the 18s century. By his name you could wonder why his last name is Benz, which is the same name that we used to call Ã¢â¬Å"gasolineÃ¢â¬ (Bensin). Funny enough his father is called Mercedes Benz. Mercedes, as many people know, is the very first car-company. Since then cars has been mass-produced, and is now available to prices that suits almost everyone.It has given many solutions to people that lives far away from work, school, relatives etc. More importantly it has done benefits to transports of food supplies, material and other stuff which has kept this world on balance. But this has also led to many accidents on the streets, which mostly occurs by young people that does not exceed the age of 20, and is now ranked on the top death-accidental stuff a human being can experience. So we ask the following question: What is the most suitable age at which people can start driving?Psychologists that have been researching on young teenagers have stated that humans become uncontrollable when they enter the period of Ã¢â¬Å"14-17 yearsÃ¢â¬ . And that it is not unusual that teenager that entered that period become fiercer and starts rushing after inordinate desires, which affects driving vehicles a lot in a negative way. And only a few numbers of people can control that large amount of energy. P. Fredrik is a psychologist who has devoted his life on studying teenagers, and has said that the large amount of energy starts disappearing in the end of the age 17, and people become more controllable after they pass the age of 17.Even if driving at the age of 16 increases the risk of accidents on the streets, there will also be lots of benefits of allowing people to drive at the age of 16. Principal of Kenny University, George Johansso n has stated that more students start to drop school after they finish High School. Doctor Dennis Henry has been studying that reason for 5 years now and has come to some few reasons to why more students start to drop school after High School. And one of those reasons says that students has a lack of ransport since school buses arenÃ¢â¬â¢t available after High School and they still donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the right to drive vehicles to school which could replace the need of transport. Therefore stops encouraging students to enter Universities. Finally, to keep the minimum number of accidents on the streets which can lead to death or permanent injuries and at the same time give students the opportunity to enter Universities which will give them a better life in the near future, the age allowance of driving vehicles should keep it at 18 years.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019
fork Perspectives on Inter home(a) Political thriftiness The first chapter of the text deals with the fundamental cons detractorution of Inter home(a) policy- make economy ( fool) and nearly analytic Issues related to Its multidimensional character. Chapters 2 done 4 atomic heel 18 the gist chapters of the text that explore the business relationship and policies associated with the trey overriding tally perspectives, namely stintingal liberalism, mer lottilism, and structuralism. These theoretical tools argon useful In under(a)standing any(prenominal) semi policy-making, stinting, and accessible Issues In the global economy of the past as advantageously as the present.Chapter 5 develops deuce alternative dispatch respective?constructivism and feminist style?that derive, In part, from the terzetto m both out adverts under deliberate. Chapter What Is supra interior(a) Political Economy? We ar the 99% A Haitian hillside. Georgian wholeen When a philosoph er has once laid pr dismantlet of a favorite dominion, which perhaps accounts for much natural effects, he ex gos the same principle everywhere the whole creation, and tames to it every phenomenon, though by the close violent and comic reasoning. Our sire mind being foreshorten and contracted, we cannot extend our conception to the var. and fulfilment of nature David Hump, The Septic 2 The dimness on the Edge of T deliver he Darkness on the edge of t avowsfolk What atomic number 18 the chances you bequeath find a good pay uping Job?or any Job for that matter? when you receive from college In the next few age? Have your p bents or spate you brace a go at it lost their Jobs, the family home, or a bighearted chunk of their retirement savings? How are you adjusting to the fiscal crisis? Maybe things nament been that magnanimous for you, insofar Reading the headlines of any major untriedspaper, you cleverness sometimes worry that the gentleman is on the brin k of a global economic catastrophe, if not a second greathearted(p) Depression.The effects of the global economic crisis gull make numerous hatful olfactory perception ensue, tearful, and depressed. The collapse to the US ho use victualsstuff in 2 morphed into a acknowledgement crisis that threatened some of the biggest banks and monetary institutions in the f whole in democracys and Europe. Government conkers responded with a signifier of bank rescue measures and supposed stimulus packages to restart their economies. These preventatives angered many a(prenominal) ordinary folks who felt that the bailouts re struggleded bankers and Coos who had cause the crisis in the first place.Meanwhile, many multitude some the creative activity were pressure out of their homes and became fired. They suffered cuts in favorable services, health care benefits, and tuition spending when regimes were forced to trim budgets. As we write in late 2012, the anticipated recovery has proved elusive. Unemployment in the United States is stuck at 7. 9 percent in the European northern (ELI), it has risen to 1 1. 6 percent (23. 4 percent for young populate). Home foreclosures and stagnant incomes elapse to place enormous strain on many families finances.The EX. has fallen into another(prenominal) recession, with countries a handle(p) Greece, Italy, Spain, and Portugal so deep in debt that they capacity slide into national bankruptcy, causing the Elses monetary system to collapse. People seem to pose lost confidence in national and external governmental institutions that underpin capitalism and democracy. Is this what the Great Transformation from industrial to post-industrial nightspot was supposed to look like? argon globalisation and the so-called creative ending of new technologies shrinking the middle classes in Western countries and permanently shifting economic dynamism to Asia and Latin America?Adding to the scent out of gloom are yetts aro und the world in the last few years. eminent crude prices assume benefited giant oil companies while hurting consumers. The giant British Pet component partum (BP) oil spill reciprocated an environmental catastrophe in the Gulf of Mexico. Japans Fuchsia earthquake and tsunami damaged several nuclear personnel plants, causing release of dangerous hot material across a large swath of territory. High agriculture commodity prices thrust raised the cost of food and increased levels of world hunger.Because there has been lower-ranking progress in reducing combine on fossil fuels, capping carbon emissions, or investing in alternative vigour resources, the threat of catastrophic climate mutation looms larger. And wars in Syria, Afghanistan, Somalia, and the Congo are destroying the livelihoods of millions of people. entrust on the Horizon? Is there exclusively gloom and doom around the chari gameboardkind? Surely, no As we discourse in Chapter 13, emerge top executiv es such(prenominal) as China, India, Brazil, and Russia have dramatically reduced poverty in the last fifteen years and made it possible for hundreds 4 Chapter 1 of millions of people to Join the middle class.Fortunately, they continued to beget at a f formly gamy pace after 2007 much Jobs, investment, and utilization in these countries tendinged concord the rest to the world trot tailing into a deeper recession. Of or so(prenominal) of the last decade, sub-Sahara Africa has excessively grown amazingly fast, thanks n part to spunky prices for oil and commodities exports. And the European Union win the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize, a reminder that? scorn its serious economic and tender occupations today?the residential district has advanced the causes of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights for to a greater extent(prenominal) than sixty years.along with these rays of hope are trio interrelated global exploitations that virtuousness sermon at the first ge ar of this text because they are profoundly shaping the multinational semi governmental economy the Arab Spring, the European main(a) debt crisis, and the imbibe contend Street (SOWS) movement. taking place on three distinguishable continents since 2011, they have shaken political institutions and spurred waves of political witnesss in response to a variety of mixer and economic ills. None of us knows how these momentous developments exit quicken out, provided we can be sure that they will affect our daily lives and pocketbooks for many years. to each(prenominal) one is a double- edged sword a potential harbinger of positive change and a potential fore fantasming of worse as yet to come. In other words, each development can either help lead to a more than stable, prosperous world in which human aegis is go guaranteed or ender divisions in spite of appearance and betwixt societies wider than in the beginning so that cooperative relations and a fairer distri unle ssion of resources rest ever more elusive goals. The Arab Spring took the world by surprise?a reminder that societal scientists still do not have good tools to predict when and why large changes will occur in involved socio-political systems.On December 17, 2010, a Tunisian pathway vendor named Mohamed Bouzouki set himself on awaken in answer to harassment by police officers. His death sparked way demonstrations that brought toss off the Tunisian government one calendar month later. Protests interruption like wildfires to other countries in the Middle East and northeastward Africa. after(prenominal) eighteen days of mass demonstrations, Egypt despotical president Hosting Embark resigned on February 11, 2011, replaced by a soldiers council. On February 15, residents of Bengali, Libya, blush up against the regime of Miramar Qaeda. pastime months of NATO bombing and spring up fighting, Qaeda was killed on October 20, 2011, and a subject area Transitional Council took a gent. The dramatic political protests?which entrance television viewers and Twitter-feed followers around the world?created an opportunity for a geeke of Arab countries o Join the community of antiauthoritarian nations. Yet the crack pig in Syria showed the world how driven some authoritarian leaders in the Middle East are to remain in power?even at the expense of killing tens of thousands of their own citizens.With the jinnee of Arab political opposition out of the bottle, countries in the Middle East and North Africa are rapidly changing. Fortunately, high oil prices and a return to relative stability in many places could improve conditions in 2013. Along with the Arab Spring came President Barack Beams withdrawal of all U. S. Troops from Iraq at the end of 2011. An abusive end to an imperial endeavor, the withdrawal seemed to signal that the U. S. Public was no longer renounce to pay for wars that drain the unre inexorableed treasury.President Obama refocused U. S. in surance policy on fighting against the Taliban in Afghanistan and ratcheting up pressure on Iran to abandon its labor to develop nuclear weapons. many analysts intrust that Beams decisions reveal a significant change of U. S. Influence in the Middle East. perchance to counteract this decline, Obama decided to bolster the American military presence in the Pacific by cultivating ties with countries afraid of Chinas rise and attaching 2,500 s venerableiers permanently in northern Australia beginning in November 2011.A second development?the European sovereign debt crisis?relentlessly gathered locomote after 2010 in the front of a prolonged recession that made it laboured for some countries to pay back considerable loans to domestic and alien banks. European Union leaders had hoped to contain the debt problems in Greece and Ireland, except governments in Spain and Portugal also began to have hold out raising new money by issuing new government bonds. entirely four countrie s in 2012 had to get pecuniary bailouts in exchange for adopting painful government spending cuts that contributed o high unemployment.Even with help from the European Central Bank, these countries have dread(a) conditions that threaten the stability of the European monetary system. Rupees responses to its debt crisis have stimulated widespread mixer unrest. Severe austerity measures have spawned street protests throughout the continent and brought changes of government in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Some EX. leaders and analysts believe that the crisis will spur European countries to form close-set(prenominal) ties, while others foresee the death of the Euro and the thought of national bankruptcies as some countries garbage to pay back onerous loans.If problems infuriate in France and Italy, the EX. could unravel economically, causing another deep global recession. The crisis is forcing Germany to decide if it is unforced to share the costs of making the EX. stronger, or if it will pursue its purely national interests. The outcomes will likely cause changes in Rupees traditionally generous sociable programs and in Rupees influence in the world. A three development started as an anti-wall Street protest in New York Citys Cutting put on September 17, 2011. Two weeks later, the Occupy Wall Street movement had chop-chop spread to many major U. S. Ties, tit encampments and general assemblies in public spaces. sympathetic occupations occurred in Europe, Israel, Chile, and Australia. Although the majority of participants in the SOWS social movement have been students, union proceeders, advanced activists, and the unemployed, their ideas seemed to resonate with a significant procedure of the middle class. Calling themselves the 99% (in business to the wealthiest 1 percent of Americans), SOWS protestors criticized financial institutions, condemned Wall Street greed, and called for a reduction of somatic control over the democratic process.Although SOW S encampments disappeared, the movement kook up new campaigns in 2012, including efforts to stop home foreclosures and reduce student debt. What do these three developments have in common? While each has its own causes, the protestors collectively represent a reaction to corrupt government and growing dissimilarity. In three large regions?the Middle East, Europe, and North America?movements sought defense from financial and cultural globalization that left people feeling at the mercy of market forces.In many sequels, protestors felt that they were unfairly forced to bail out the wealthy but denied a chance to snare many o governments 6 s to old growth. Austerity policies that many had adopted since 2008?and even earlier in the Arab countries?cut into a host of public social programs such as education and relief for the pathetic. Many disgruntled citizens disagreed with their leaders, who argued that such reductions were necessary to reduce the size of government, balance nati onal budgets, and stimulate economic recovery.While Arabs claimed a political percentage that had been squashed by decades of dictatorial rule, Americans and Europeans seemed to pray a new kind of administration freed from the grip of special interests and big money. In all three cases, elites who were supposed to be the experts on political and financial personal business suddenly were at a way out to inform why things had gotten so bad under their watch. With a loss of faith in Arab regimes, EX. leaders, and U. S. Bankers came a certain privatization of ruling ideologies such as economic liberalism.A new emphasis was placed on democratic participation and economic fairness. patronage a new zeitgeist in the air in three continents, old political and economic institutions were still resilient. Many regimes held secure in the Middle East. American banks grew even egger after government bailouts, and more money than ever poured into the campaign war chests of Democratic and Re publican political candidates. EX. political elites continued to make deals that seemed designed to provided big investors and banks rather than ordinary citizens.The alternatives to the old did not al ways promise a better future, either. In the af conditionath of the Arab Spring, Psalmists like Egypt new president Mohamed Moors made their own undemocratic power grabs, try oning to call in religiously conservative policies and weaken womens rights. Reactions against austerity in Europe streng consequentlyed utmost(prenominal) right-wing parties in Greece and France while supply anti-E or secessionist sentiments in the United demesne and Catalonia.And by refusing to organize and engage in principle politics, the SOWS forces dissipated?leaving normal two-party gridlock in Washington after the November 2012 elections. The Road Ahead By discussing preceding(prenominal) the three big developments, as well as the problems and promises in the global economy, we have hopefully give n you a horse sense of some of the main(prenominal) phenomena we seek to control in foreign political economy. non unsurprisingly, there are fierce debates astir(predicate) the causes of current crises and the top hat solutions to them.One of the arguments we make in this text is that to adequately key and formulate the current global financial crisis?or any of the other issues covered in the dissimilar chapters?we must use an uninflected approach that synthesizes methods and insights derived from economics, political science, and sociology as well-educated by an deducting to history and philosophy. As you delve deeper into the material, you will learn a variety of theories and analytical tools that help us interpret the interrelationships of the reconcile, market, and society in contrasting nations.The trounce method bridges assorted academic theater of operationss to better explain employ, real-world problems that thwart physical and intellectual boundaries. W hile this teaching index sound a bit formal and confusing at this point, keep in mind that we do not think you need to be an economics major, a specialist in finance, The What, Why, and How of International Political Economy or a Middle East expert to understand the primary parameters of the global financial crisis or the Arab Spring.This book is written for students who have curb background in political science, economics, or sociology, as well as for those who penury to review an assortment of topics in readiness for graduate school. In the next section, we look at how to study PIP?its three distinct analytical perspectives and a rate of methodological issues with which PIP students should become acquainted. every last(predicate) the chapters in the book cover principal(prenominal) theoretical and Policy issues that have connections to the three developments we have mentioned?and to many more.In this way, we hope students might better understand disparate dimensions of t he problems and then make some reasoned Judgments astir(predicate) how to solve them. Later in this chapter, we discuss the popular phenomenon of globalization as a way o introduce students to many of the political-economic conditions that led up to the global financial crisis. Many PIP experts have asseverate that the economic liberal ideas behind globalization may have contributed to the crisis. Opinions differ, however, on whether or not the crisis signals the end of laissez-fairer economic policies, or even the end of capitalism itself. He what, why, and how of International Political economy Our discussion of the financial crisis and its consequences makes clear that todays Gordian issues can no longer be easily analyzed and understood by using any single et of disciplinary methods and concepts. Those who study PIP are, in essence, breaking down the analytical and conceptual boundaries amongst politics, economics, and sociology to divulge a unique explanatory framework. Fo llowing are several examples of questions that traditional academic disciplines might ask as they seek to explain the global financial crisis.Each discipline focuses on different actors and interests International relations How much has the financial crisis detracted from the ability of orders to pay for military defense? How has the crisis bear upon the conditions of war or terrorism in poor put ups? As Europe, Japan, and the United States struggle, will uphill countries like China, India, and Brazil gain more political influence in global institutions? International economics How has the crisis impacted foreign investment, international trade, and the determine of different currencies? comparative Politics What is the capability of political institutions within different nations to respond to the needs of the unemployed? What new political forces are emerging and with what effects on political coalitions? Sociology How has the crisis affected consumption trends for different groups such as the upper, middle, and rower classes? How do the effects of inequality vary on the basis of ethnicity and grammatical gender? Anthropology How have different societies in history dealt with crises related to how they allocate precious resources?And how have these crises impacted their cultures, values, and societal norms? 8 focusing on a narrow regulate of methods and issues enhances intellectual specialization and analytical force. just any single discipline offers an uncompleted invoice of global events. Specialization promotes a sort of scholarly blindness or distorted view that comes from using completely one set of analytical methods and incepts to explain what most decidedly is a complex problem that could benefit from a multidisciplinary perspective.When delineate PIP, we make a distinction among the term international political economy and the acronym PIP. The source refers to what we study?commonly referred to as a subject area or field of query that involves tensions among states, markets, and societal actors. In this text, we tend to focus on a variety of actors and issues that are either international (between nation-states) or transnational (across the national borders of two or more states).Increasingly today, any analysts use the term global political economy instead of international political economy to explain problems such as climate change, hunger, and illicit markets that have spread over the entire world, and not meet a few nations. In this book, we ofttimes use these two equipment casualty interchangeably. The acronym PIP also connotes a method of inquiry that is multidisciplinary. PIP fashions the tools of outline of its antecedent disciplines so as to more accurately describe and explain the ever- changing relationships between governments, businesses, and social forces across history and in different geographical areas.What are some of the aboriginal elements of the antecedent melds to study that contrib ute to IP 7 First, PIP includes a political dimension that accounts for the use of power by a variety of actors, including individuals, domestic groups, states (acting as single units), international organizations, nongovernmental organizations (Nags), and transnational corporations (Tens). All these actors make decisions roughly the distribution of transparent things such as money and products or intangible things such as security and innovation.In almost all cases, politics involves the making of rules pertaining to owe states and societies achieve their goals. Another perspective of politics is the kind of public and privy institutions that have the countenance to pursue different goals. Second, PIP involves an economic dimension that deals with how scarce resources are distributed among individuals, groups, and nation-states. A variety of public and private institutions allocate resources on a day-to-day basis in local markets where we shop. Today, a market is not exclusi vely a place where people go to profane or exchange something face to face with the products maker.The market can also be thought of as a driving force that shapes human behavior. When consumers buy things, when investors purchase stocks, and when banks lend money, their dependability minutes constitute a vast, sophisticated weathervane of relationships that coordinate economic activities all over the world. Political scientist Charles Limbo makes an interesting case that the economy is actually nothing more than a system for coordinating social behavior What people eat, their occupation, and even what they do when not working are all organized around different agricultural, labor, and relief markets.In effect, markets often perform a social function of coordination without a coordinator. L Third, the whole shebang of such notables as Charles Limbo and economists Robert mud puppy and Lester Throw help us accredit that PIP does not glint teeming the societal dimension of dif ferent international problems. 2 A growing number of PIP scholars argue that states and markets do not exist in a social vacuum. There are usually many different social groups within a state that share identities, norms, and associations based on tribal ties, ethnicity, religion, or gender.Likewise, a variety of transnational groups (referred to as global civil society) have interests that cut across national boundaries. A host of Nags have assay to pressure national and international organizations on issues such as climate change, refugees, migratory workers, and gender-based exploitation. All of these groups are purveyors of ideas that potentially bugger off tensions between them and other groups but play a major role in shaping global behavior. How to Study PIP Contrasting Perspectives and Methodologies The three dominant perspectives of PIP are economic liberalism, mercantilism, and structuralism.Each focuses on the relationships between a variety of actors and institutions. A strict extinction between these perspectives is quite coercive and has been imposed by disciplinary tradition, at times making it baffling to lever their connections to one another. Each perspective emphasizes different values, actors, and solutions to Policy problems but also overlooks some important elements high enlightened by the other two perspectives. sparing liberalism (particularly unilateralism?see Chapter 2) is most close associated with the study of markets.Later we will explain why there is an increasing gap between orthodox economic liberals (Eels), who champion free arrests and free trade, and heterodox interventionist liberals (Hills), who support more state regulation and trade encourageion to sustain markets. Increasingly, Hills have stressed that markets work best when they are embedded in (connected to) society and when the state intervenes to resolve problems that markets solely cannot handle. In fact, many Hills acknowledge that markets are the source o f many of these problems.Many liberal values and ideas are the ideological foundation of the globalization campaign. They are derived from notable thinkers such as Adam Smith, David Ric grueling, John Maynard Keynes, Frederica Hayes, and Milton Friedman. The laissez-fairer principle, that the state should commit the economy alone, is attributed to Adam Smith. 3 more than recently, economic liberal ideas have been associated with designer president Ronald Reagan and his acolytes, who contended that economic growth is best achieved when the government severely limits its involvement (interference) in the economy.Under pure market conditions (I. E. , the absence of state intervention or social influences), people are assumed to behave rationally (see Chapter 2). 10 That is, they will naturally seek to maximize their gains and limit their losses when reducing and exchange things. They have strong desires to exchange and to generate wealth by competing with others for sales in local and international markets. According to Eels, people should strongly value economic efficiency? the ability to use and distribute resources efficaciously and with little waste.Why is efficiency so important? When an economy is inefficient, scarce resources go sassy or could be used in other ways that would be more beneficial to society. This idea has been applied to the new global economy and is one of the basic principles behind globalization. Mercantilism (also called economic nationalism) is most closely associated with the political philosophy of realism, which focuses on state efforts to accumulate wealth and power to shelter society from physical equipment casualty or the influence of other states (see Chapters 3 and 9).In theory, the state is a legal entity and an sovereign system of institutions that governs a specific geographic territory and a nation. Since the mid-seventeenth century, the state has been the dominant actor in the international community based on the principle that it has the authority to exercise sovereignty (final authority) over its own affairs. States use two types of power to protect themselves. Hard power refers to tangible military and economic assets employed to compel, coerce, intelligence, tend tot, or death enemies and competitors.Soft power comprises selective tools that resile and project a country cultural values, beliefs, and ideals. Through the use of movies, cultural exports and exchanges, information, and diplomacy, a state can convince others that the ideas it sponsors are legitimate and should be adopted. Soft power can in many ways be more effective than touchy power because it rests on persuasion and correlative exchange. For example, Nobel Peace Prize recipient Barack Obama partially regained some of the worlds support for the United States through a discourse emphasizing eight-sided cooperation.Structuralism is rooted in Marxist analysis but not limited to it (see Chapter 4). It looks at PIP issues m ainly in terms of how different social classes are cause by the dominant economic structure. It is most closely associated with the methods of analysis many sociologists employ. Structuralisms emphasize that markets have never existed in a social vacuum. Some combination of social, economic, and political forces establishes, regulates, and preserves them.As we will see in the case of the financial crisis, even the standards used to Judge the effectiveness of market systems reflect the dominant values and beliefs of those forces. The Benefits of PIP Each perspective in PIP sheds light on some aspects of a problem particularly well, but casts a shadow on other important aspects. By using a combination of the three dominant PIP methods and concepts (outlined in fudge 1-1), we can move to the big date?the most comprehensive and compelling news report of global processes.Not surprisingly, mixing together the disciplines of economics, political science, and sociology gives rise to an analytical problem It is difficult to establish a single explanation to any PIP issue because each discipline has its own set of analytical concepts, core beliefs, and methodologies. Does this weaken the utility of PIP? Not at all. We must pick out that PIP is not a hard science it may never table 1-1 Conflicting Political economic Perspectives about state-market relations in Capitalist societies Monetarism (Orthodox Economic Liberals) Main Ideas aboutCapitalism Laissez-fairer minimal state intervention and regulation of the economy Keynesian (Heterodox Interventionist Economic Liberals) The state primes (injects money? liquidity) into the economy to desexualise confidence in it and to stabilize it efficacy mixed with a variety of state political and social objectives Developmental State Model (Mercantilism) Socialism (Structuralism) Social body politic (Structuralism) The state plays a proactive role in the economy to guide and protect its major industries The state controls th e economy. Prices set by state officials. Emphasis on state