Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Feminism and International Relations Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Feminism and International Relations - Essay Example However, there are no agreed standards on how to achieve the equality standards. While most problems in international relations field are considered to reveal around the issue of war and security  as most realists assume, there are numerous groups that are liberal in nature, which are concerned in human rights groups, civil society, international political economy, development in the social space among others. For many years, realism and liberalism have been the two main theorists that address issues in international relations. Vibrant societal networks with entrenched confidence and practice leads lead to acknowledgement of important objectives in the country’s systems.The feminist movements and groups do influence international relations decisions by advocating new and better approaches to global to promote justice, equality, and maximise the value of humanity in globe affairs. Literature Review Feminism is currently a political movement and continues to challenge traditio nal approaches of conceptualising politics in the society and the political disciplines (Randall 1995, 118). There are two types of feminism: radical and Marxist feminism that had a revolutionary mind while the liberal feminists have portrayed themselves as reformists in international relations. As a result, in most western countries, the reformist mindset has won the political space, with many women, feminists included, making an impact in political institutions and professions (Randall 1995, 118). Feminist empiricism advances the perspective that states and interstate relations have been governed by dominating gendered structures, and interactions that have been neglecting women in leadership. Feminist standpoint is that women in their varied experiences in life have gained expertise and knowledge in the political life, which offers different perspectives on social issues that provide reliable and effective solutions to most problems in the world political system (Keohane 1989, 24 5). Therefore, the role of feminisms in international relations is to criticise any patriarchal thinking and introduce gendered structures in the society. The social and political integration have an impact on women discrimination since they diversify foundation of political competition and contribute to formation of diverse identities and understanding among citizens. Societal revolutions such as relocation from rural to city resolution areas, speedy population change, democratic politics, and improvement affect women rights. The political protests by women aim at convincing authorities of particular policies as well as create social norms through endorsing particular social behaviors. Problems Feminist Face in International Relations Women discrimination narrows the potential range of policy responses, undermines the capacity of the society to respond autonomously to the demands of their citizenry thereby weakening the legitimacy of traditional political intermediaries and state a uthorities. These new arrangements promoted the diffusion of new values of good governance, human rights, institutional structures, policy formulation, and democracy. One of the major problems that feminists have sought to deal with is in sovereignty of nations. For many years, sovereignty has been related to reciprocity (Keohane 1989, 247). In other words, as Koehane explains, while states have to claims their sovereignty, such states have a duty to respect the sovereignty of other states. These traditional international relation perspectives were discriminatory and tend to separate a nation from others. As Cohn (1987,

Monday, October 28, 2019

Food Memoir Essay Example for Free

Food Memoir Essay Eating it as soon as it gets out of the oven is an amazing experience. The elation increased inside me as soon as I started to smell the juicy baked chicken. Suddenly, it feels like a irresistible need to grab a bite of it right away. Obviously you can’t resist it, so you cut a piece of it and eat it. The crunchy sensation of the baked cereal all around the chicken is wonderful, but not only the texture felt good, the gooey of the sugar that comes with the cornflake make it taste like glory. The sweet mixed with the salt of the seasonings is an incredible party inside the mouth. Adding a delicious bowl of baked potatoes with bechamel sauces makes the dish even better. I always love to cook and be creative while cooking; preparing different kind of dishes with different seasons, all natural most of the time. Cooking is not about following recipes and going by the cooking book. Instead it’s about being able to mix different seasonings to create the perfect taste. The history behind this invention comes from the lack of resources to prepare a decent dish. It was a quite night like tonight, listening to John Mayer and my roommate and I were really hungry. Then we looked at the refrigerator and cabinets to see what we could cook but we only found chicken, tomatoes, garlic, salt and pepper. Having all those seasons and been tired of eating grill chicken I decided to make it baked crunchy chicken, but sadly there wasn’t any ground bread and I figured it out late so the only thing that I could use was the cereal. So that is how it happened, a happy mistake. I used cornflakes instead of bread crumbs for the baked chicken. At the time I started to prepare the chicken, two girls came in looking for us. They reaction was priceless; they screamed â€Å"Oh my god! You guys are crazy! † at us. My roommate after he laughed for few seconds he told them that it was going to taste good and that they will want me to cook for them after they taste it. The girls said ok and stayed in our apartment all night with us having fun. While the chicken was in the oven, I put some potatoes to boil. Then when the potatoes were cooked, I prepared bechamel sauces. I took a bowl with all the potatoes and I let the bechamel sauces rain over it. Then I put the bowl inside the oven with the chicken as well. In the meantime, I sat down between the two girls and we talked about something â€Å"special†. That happened later that night. When it was time to take the chicken and the potatoes out of the oven, we all went to the kitchen to see how it looks like. First I took out the chicken and placed on the dinner table, and then I go back to the kitchen to take out the potatoes as well. When I come back from the kitchen, I found that my friends had already eaten one chicken to taste it in like 8 seconds. I told them that they attacked the chicken too fast. Therefore one of the girls said to me that it was really good, that the sugar on the chicken was delicious. We sat on the table, each of us four with 2 boneless Baked Cereal Crunchy Chicken, with baked potatoes doused in bechamel sauce and many very cold coke cans. The coke cans were so cold that I had to use my can handler while the others used a can bag that we have. Those 15 to 30 minutes that we were eating on the table, became a good memory to our brains and especially to our tongues. Even though, that like five other people came to the apartment to check out our dinner and ate from our food, it was a good. They find out about it because the girls posted some pictures on instagram. Every single people who tasted the food, at the beginning when they saw what was it, they were all like â€Å"Cornflakes with Chicken? † However they all found it very tasty. Good enough to tell me that I should do that again. After we ate, I laid down on the sofa with my head over one of the girl legs. Then my friend yelled out loud â€Å"Toy timbi†, that is a Dominican expression that people say when we cannot eat more. My roommate went to the kitchen to clean the dishes, as it was his turn. After he was done, the girls screamed â€Å"Special time! † and suddenly a bottle of Jose Cuervo appeared. They prepared some margaritas with lemon and strawberry mixer. Later on, after around 3 rounds of margaritas we started to listen and dance merengue and salsa. We dance for like hour and half non stopping. Also we were singing a bit while we were dancing. We stopped dancing when he figure out that it was 4:00 am and we had class at 8:30 am. We were all tired but we were also in a happy mood. We all went to bed right away, but sadly none of us make it through the next four hours; the one who woke up earlier was the younger girl at 10 o’clock. She nocked my door very hard, until I woke up really mad because we skipped the class at 8:30 am. When we were all ready, we talked about last night. And the first thing that came out was that the chicken was really good and when I would do it again.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Essay -- essays research papers fc

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born January 27, 1756, in Salzburg, Austria. He was christened Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus, but he preferred Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. His father, Leopold, began teaching him to play minuets on the harpsichord before he was four years old. It only took him half an hour to learn each minuet. Before he was six, he had composed sonatas and a concerto for the harpsichord. Mozart learned to play the violin without being taught. He had watched his father and developed and intuition for playing. As a child, Mozart was so serious and thoughtful that at times he appeared older than he was. However, he was still a boyish boy and had a happy contentment about him. At age 6, Mozart began touring with his family where he played for the Emperor and Empress in Vienna, and Marie Antoinette, the future Queen of France. In 1763 Mozart went to Paris where he wrote four sonatas that were published. Next, Mozart traveled to England and played for the King and Queen. Then at the age of nine he wrote his first symphonies for orchestra. In 1766, he returned to Salzburg. By this time Mozart could play music at first sight on the piano, harpsichord, clavichord, and organ. He was also talented on the violin and viola. It wasn’t long before he was traveling again. In 1770, while in Milan, Mozart wrote the opera â€Å"Mitridate† and then another opera â€Å"Lucio Silla†. While in Italy, Mozart passed a composition test and became a member of the Bologna Philharmonic So...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

The Importance of Good Teacher-Student Relationships :: Education Teaching

The Importance of Good Teacher-Student Relationships What kind of relationship should a teacher and a student have in the classroom? The answer to this question may seem like an obvious one to many because a teacher and a student should always strive to have a good relationship in order to fare well in the classroom. In fact a good relationship creates many advantages between both teacher and student. For instance, a good relationship produces a good environment within the classroom, which can be a vital point to the success of both teacher and student. On the other hand, there is a flip side to the coin and that is a bad relationship. A bad relationship is where most of the problems come about in the classroom for both teacher and student. In the studies made by Cheney, she discovers that many students are no longer able to express and expand their minds because of the barriers placed upon them by their teachers and peers. Cheney wrote that one must conform to the teachers way of thinking because if you do not, you are taking a chance in receiving a bad grade. Even though one must compromise one's own opinion to satisfy a teacher, it is worth it because you only need to take that course once if you follow the style and beliefs of your teacher. Then again, if you donUt follow the pattern of your teacher, you may end up taking that same course many times until you finally surrender to the beliefs of your instructors. The teacherUs opinion in the classroom can be overpowering in many cases and it can make you forfeit your own opinion even if you feel that you are right. Such intimidating methods of the teacher can repress the creativity of the student. Therefore, making the student into a uniform thinker, which is not the best way in acquiring knowledge. As Socrates would say, one must ask questions and challenge them to find the truth (the truth being knowledge) and that is the best way to acquire knowledge. I have gone through a similar experience in courses that I have taken in college. For example, When I did assignments for a feminist class I only wrote what the teacher wanted to see and kept my own opinions to my self. Even though I felt that my explanation would be a better one, all I was thinking about was getting a decent grade and moving on, which was something I really regret because I felt that I did not learn anything. The Importance of Good Teacher-Student Relationships :: Education Teaching The Importance of Good Teacher-Student Relationships What kind of relationship should a teacher and a student have in the classroom? The answer to this question may seem like an obvious one to many because a teacher and a student should always strive to have a good relationship in order to fare well in the classroom. In fact a good relationship creates many advantages between both teacher and student. For instance, a good relationship produces a good environment within the classroom, which can be a vital point to the success of both teacher and student. On the other hand, there is a flip side to the coin and that is a bad relationship. A bad relationship is where most of the problems come about in the classroom for both teacher and student. In the studies made by Cheney, she discovers that many students are no longer able to express and expand their minds because of the barriers placed upon them by their teachers and peers. Cheney wrote that one must conform to the teachers way of thinking because if you do not, you are taking a chance in receiving a bad grade. Even though one must compromise one's own opinion to satisfy a teacher, it is worth it because you only need to take that course once if you follow the style and beliefs of your teacher. Then again, if you donUt follow the pattern of your teacher, you may end up taking that same course many times until you finally surrender to the beliefs of your instructors. The teacherUs opinion in the classroom can be overpowering in many cases and it can make you forfeit your own opinion even if you feel that you are right. Such intimidating methods of the teacher can repress the creativity of the student. Therefore, making the student into a uniform thinker, which is not the best way in acquiring knowledge. As Socrates would say, one must ask questions and challenge them to find the truth (the truth being knowledge) and that is the best way to acquire knowledge. I have gone through a similar experience in courses that I have taken in college. For example, When I did assignments for a feminist class I only wrote what the teacher wanted to see and kept my own opinions to my self. Even though I felt that my explanation would be a better one, all I was thinking about was getting a decent grade and moving on, which was something I really regret because I felt that I did not learn anything.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

An oral history of the zombie war Essay

Though perhaps not as â€Å"academic† as the other sources in this bibliography, the oral history of the zombie war is an important side note to the whole genre. In Brooks’ book, there are several moments, while recounting the battles with the zombies, where they are told from the point of view of the liberators. In fact, in his story, he coins the phrase â€Å"LAMOE† which stands â€Å"Last men on earth†. These individuals, much like the character played by Will Smith, had been left behind, the infected zones to fend for themselves. Often, as the story is told, these people left behind, were not all too happy to be â€Å"liberated†, as they had conditioned themselves to the isolation of being, and believing they were the last â€Å"people† on earth. In this sense, the film version and incidentally the book, deal with these concepts from the point of view of the isolated; but, what if they were to be told from the point of view of the liberators? Campbell, Joseph. â€Å"The Hero with a Thousand Faces† Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949. Joseph Campbell’s book, is an overview of legends and the masks our heroes wear. Both in the film version and the book version of I Am Legend, the Robert Neville character must go through various trials; which, ultimately in the film version, leads to his transformation from this plane of existence to another. (Mainly, by dying) The first trial, is simple isolation, which Campbell explicitly describes as one of the most common trails of mythology. Additionally, in the film, the main character exhibits a certain arrogance, which ultimately turns around on him. I. E the way he had caught the other zombie, the trick sort to speak, was used against him later in the movie. Giglioli, Palo Pier. Language and Social Context. New York: Penguin. 1972. It should be of note: the original book written by Matheson, had a lead character who was white; whereas the film version cast the lead character as black. Setting aside the box-office appeal of Will Smith for a moment, what were some of the other reasons for the change of race? Could the film be taken as an commentary of the plight of successful African-Americans, being isolated, though working desperately to help their friends, family and peer group? If the film is viewed in this light, one could most accurately argue that it is in fact a commentary on racial issues within a particular racial group. Hellekson, Karen Ph. D. The alternate history (Refiguring Historical Time). Kent: Kent State University Press, 2001. Through out her review of the alternate history genera of story telling, Karen Hellekson, makes not of the function of the story being told. If one were to apply her same method of criticism to the movie version of I AM Legend, we would find that it too is an alternate history. Obviously, fictions, the film I Am Legend, begins with the initial out-break, due to the cancer fighting drug. Although, this is told in a â€Å"present† narrative, the inclusion, of these scenes are to create an artificial history in the story’s time line. Matheson, Richard. â€Å"I AM LEGEND† London: Orion Books, 1954. Naturally, the movie version starring Will Smith is radically divergent from the original book published in 1954. An example of one such divergence, is in the role of the main character. In the original works, the main character, was a former Marine, whereas in the film version, he is a current Marine working with the CDC. Another divergence, which actually changes the nature of the title, is found at the ending of both the book and the film. In the film version, the main character becomes legendary, due to how he dies; whereas the book version, Robert Neville, is legendary due to him being the last non-infected â€Å"human† or in essence the last man on earth. Twain, Mark. â€Å"On the Damned Human Race† A collection of Essays Edited by Janet Smith. 1962. An argument could be made that both the film and the original fiction, had been a commentary on the human condition, the human race. Twin’s wit and insight into the social conditions apply aptly to both the film version and the book. The fact Robert Neville takes it upon himself to â€Å"cure† the world is manifestly anti-twian-ian. â€Å"it is the ghost, of fool-hardy chivalry† as Twain would say, about the lengths the character goes to rid the world of something, that it seems more than happy to live with.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Introduction Of The Care Quality Commission Social Work Essays

Introduction Of The Care Quality Commission Social Work Essays Introduction Of The Care Quality Commission Social Work Essay Introduction Of The Care Quality Commission Social Work Essay The debut of the Care Quality Commission arguably fixesA that which was non broken.A Editorial The Trials of Marriage, The Guardian, Wednesday 1st AprilA 2009.A The CQC came into being on 1st April 2009. See the intendedA function of the CQC and measure this statement in visible radiation of the experiencesA of the first full twelvemonth of the CQC s being. We need to see tougher action by the committee on hapless suppliers. The committee can enforce or vary conditions where older people may be at hazard. It can call off the enrollment if that is the lone manner to guarantee safety. Areas highlighted as needing pressing attending include record-keeping, medicine, attention programs and staff supervising. Operating as from April 1st 2009 the Care Quality Commission ( CQC ) takes over from the function of the former Commission for Social Care Inspection ( CSCI ) as the enrollment and ordinance organic structure for societal attention in England, every bit good as executing the maps of the former Healthcare Commission and the Mental Health Act Commission. The CQC requires all wellness and grownup societal attention suppliers to register their regulated activities. Regulated activities that require enrollment are declared in the Health and Social Care Act 2008 ( Regulated Activities ) Regulations 2009, Pt II, s 3 ( 1 ) . The intended function of the CQC is to do the general criterion of attention better, nevertheless concerns have been raised about the hapless quality of wellness attention for the aged as about one one-fourth of places for older people provide unequal attention. The CQC has done a batch of beguiling in its first twelvemonth of being which confirms the statement that it arguably holes that which was non broken . First, its staff have had to make an administration from the amalgamation of the Commission for Social Care Inspection, the Healthcare Commission and the Mental Health Act Commission. In add-on, it has had to go on its predecessors maps in measuring grownup societal attention proviso, measuring wellness services and supervising the intervention of detained mental wellness patients. There are several wellness attention regulators viz. the Care Quality Commission ( CQG ) , the Health Protection Agency ( HPA ) , the Human Tissue Authority ( HTA ) , the Medicines and Healthcare merchandises Regulatory Agency ( MHRA ) , the Medical Research Council ( MRC ) , the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence ( NICE ) and the National Patient Safety Agency ( NPSA ) . The CQG regulates all the wellness and grownup societal attention in England and besides protects the involvements of those detained under the Mental Health Act. The most late devised wellness attention regulator is the CQC which seems to be an effort at embracing the function and maps of the other organic structures. The CQC has made proposals for its attack to the appraisals of quality in 2010/2011 for all establishments in England that provide health care and grownup societal attention services, and for the National Health Service ( normally referred to as the NHS ) and local authorization administrations that committee those services. The proposals were set up in conformity with the Heath and Social Care Act 2008. From April 1st 2009 all administrations that are suppliers of health care and grownup societal attention services in England will be required to be registered by October 1st 2010 with the CQC as stated by the Heath and Social Care Act 2008. Registration is non merely about the initial enrollment. but includes initial enrollment, monitoring and appraisal of ongoing conformity, review and execution. The CQC has to set about enrollment activities every bit good as to execute periodic reappraisals, and particular reappraisals and surveies and to print information on its findings. A new legal model has been created to ease the new ordinance system that is the Health and Social Care Act 2008 ( Registration Requirement Regulations 2009 ) . The Health and Social Care Act 2008 gives the CQC extended powers. It can publish enforcement notices, withdraw supplier organic structures rights to supply services wholly or can publish certain conditions of service/registration if it decides it is necessary to make so. Its enforcement options range from minor to really serious countenances depending on the service affected grade of hazard or service break. However the CQC stresses it wants the regulative system to drive and back up the health care and grownup societal services administrations to better and raise criterions and to be based on equity and transparence. On its official website the NHS describes the intended function of the CQC a regulator which makes certain that the voices of people who use wellness and grownup societal attention services are heard by inquiring people to portion their experiences of attention services. It makes certain that users positions are at the bosom of its studies and reappraisals. In some instances patients and their carersA work aboard inspectors to supply a user s position of services. The world and whether the CQC has successfully achieved the ends the NHS mentioned is arguable. The CQC is responsible to do certain that indispensable common criterions of quality are met everyplace wellness attention is provided, from infirmaries to private attention places and work towards bettering wellness attention services. The Commission promotes the rights and involvements of people who use services and have a broad scope of enforcement powers to take action on their behalf if services are intolerably below criterions The CQC brought together ( for the first clip ) independent ordinance of wellness, mental wellness and grownup societal attention. Before April 1st 2009, these undertakings were carried out by the Healthcare Commission, the Mental Health Act Commission and the Commission for Social Care Inspection. The purpose of the CQC is to guarantee that better attention is provided for everyone wherever it is provided. The Commission has greater powers and duties to utilize and take history of people s positions and experiences of services, and this includes grounds from overview and examination commissions. In June 2009, a Statement of Involvement was published puting out the Commission s attack to affecting people in their mission.A Overview and scrutiny commissions working on wellness issues have been an of import beginning of grounds of people s positions and experiences of wellness services for the Healthcare Commission. The Commission wants to construct on this relationship and to promote commissions to develop an on-going duologue with them. Scrutiny commissions have a cardinal function in conveying together and jointing the positions of local people who use wellness and societal attention services in their country, and to look into whether their demands and concerns are being addressed by service commissioners and suppliers. In many ways, examination commissions operate like a local regulator, keeping services to account. During its first twelvemonth the CQC has faced many challenges which sheds a uncertainty of whether the Commission has truly fixed a prevalent issue or has fixed that which was non broken. The CQC has had to continue with the functions carried out by its predecessors as stated in the Health and Social Care Bill, Part II. The CQC has besides introduced a new enrollment system for wellness and societal attention suppliers in English which is the first clip the NHS has been regulated in that mode. The new nucleus criterions imposed by the CQC will replace the ordinances and comparative National Minimum Standards under the Care Standards Act 2000 which will be null as from September 30th 2010. The ordinances introduced by the CQC will use from October 1st 2010 ( the day of the month when the suppliers must be registered in the new system ) . Under the new system introduced by the CQC, alternatively of being separately registered for each service, suppliers will hold to register harmonizi ng to their several regulated activity. In September 2009, the CQC had to confront a serious allegation about pull stringsing study findings. The caput of the Development for Mental Health, Louis Appleby, accused the CQC of seeking to pull the media s attending by portraying a deformed flattering image of the Commission s work therefore sabotaging the intended function of the CQC which is to be factual and balanced and inform the populace and patients . Professor Appleby expressed his concerns about the hapless public presentation of the CQC which the Commission did non welcome. In December 2009, Colin Angel, the caput of policy and communicating United Kingdom Homecare Association and the Registered Nursing Home Association criticised the Commission s failure to pass on efficaciously over the system of enrollment: We are highly defeated about the handling of the enrollment procedure. We fear that CQC is nt adequately prepared for the tremendous communicating exercising confronting them. Colin Angel besides identified the fact that the CQC was losing the chance to utilize the extended proficient cognition available from suppliers representative organic structures which the Registered Nursing Home Association head executive Frank Ursell approved. Some service suppliers have expressed their concerns about the fact that the Commission might hold embarked on a mission which was excessively extended and disputing to them as stated by the joint chair of the Association of Directors of Adult Social Services criterions and resources web: It has been stretched at senior direction degree and we ve had rather short notice of a figure of enterprises. It s been a spot hand-to-mouth in footings of its ability to do determinations. She points to the fact that concluding counsel on how councils were to be assessed in 2009-10 was merely published three-fourthss of the manner through the twelvemonth. Colin Angel, caput of policy and communicating at the UKHCA, says: The CQC has lost valuable clip restructuring, go forthing deficient clip for over 24,000 societal attention suppliers to accommodate to new criterions before they are required to re-register. But Amanda Sherlock, caput of operations at the CQC, says it has been an outstanding accomplishment to draw together the three committees, deliver concern every bit usual every bit good as bring in a new regulative theoretical account , while constructing a new administration. She says that some things could hold gone better, stating that the CQC has worked on how it handles national proclamations, so councils and other organic structures face no surprises when these go on. Norman acknowledges the CQC has shown itself willing to listen and accepted the concerns that we ve had . On supplier enrollment, Sherlock says: We are acute to hear how we can make things better and how we can orient our attack and communicating. She says the CQC has an absolute focal point on doing certain suppliers are clear what is expected between April and October when they must register. National Care Forum executive manager Des Kelly says for its portion the supplier sector needs to work with the CQC to guarantee enrollment succeeds. Sherlock admits the CQC has set a batch of clip into organizational development but says this has paid off in set uping an administration that has an absolute committedness to driving up quality and safety across wellness and societal attention without specifying any sector as particular . A twelvemonth ago, many in societal attention, including former CSCI chair Dame Denise Platt, feared the wellness service s high political and public profile would do it particular . And since Johnstone s going last fall, there has been no 1 with a societal attention background on CQC s executive squad below main executive Cynthia Bower, who left societal services in 1995. Sherlock insists such frights have proved baseless, but says the CQC has been helped by grownup attention s lifting profile. Sherlock, who worked for the CSCI and its predecessor, the National Care Standards Commission, points to her ain centrality to CQC s strategic way, despite non being on the executive squad. She besides reveals that the CQC will shortly name a national societal attention advisor, to supply external challenge and beef up links with the sector. Kelly says the issue of societal attention s precedence has gone better than I would hold predicted 12 months ago . Concerns have besides been raised that the CQC would non keep the CSCI s focal point on user engagement. Sue Bott, manager of the National Centre for Independent Living, which provides users to move as experts by experience on review squads, says engagement is nowhere near as prevalent as it was in the CSCI. The CQC produced a statement on user engagement last June, plighting to carry on studies and put up advisory panels. Sherlock agrees there is more to make but says the statement has been implemented and the CQC s user engagement squad, led by Frances Hasler, who performed the same function for the CSCI, actively challenges all parts of the administration . One of the cardinal aims of the CQC is to back up the integrating of wellness and societal attention. Kelly says he has non seen a great trade of grounds as yet of advancement on this forepart. But Sherlock points to the particular reappraisals that the CQC has been making on issues that cross the divide, including the quality of health care for attention place occupants, which she says will place good pattern and any spreads. These will describe in 2010-11, alongside the axial rotation out of enrollment for grownup attention suppliers and a Reformed public presentation appraisal for councils. It will be another busy twelvemonth. ONE Year OF THE CQC April 2009 The Care Quality Commission starts work. Surpassing Commission for Social Care Inspection chair Dame Denise Platt raises concerns over its possible to sufficiently prioritize societal attention and affect service users. May 2009 Former Association of Directors of Adults Social Services criterions lead David Johnstone appointed manager of operations at the CQC. He leaves the administration after merely a few months. June 2009 Statement on service user engagement published. The CQC announces series of particular reappraisals for 2009-10, including of health care demands of attention place occupants and impact of recession on services. July 2009 The CQC says NHS trusts are neglecting to follow with kid protection demands in countries such as staff preparation in study sparked by Baby Peter instance. September 2009 DH mental wellness manager Louis Appleby says the CQCHYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2009/09/29/112717/appleby-accuses-care-quality-commission-of-seeking-headlines.htm HYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2009/09/29/112717/appleby-accuses-care-quality-commission-of-seeking-headlines.htm s portraiture of consequences of an in-patient study was HYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2009/09/29/112717/appleby-accuses-care-quality-commission-of-seeking-headlines.htm HYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2009/09/29/112717/appleby-accuses-care-quality-commission-of-seeking-headlines.htm intentionally distortingHYPERLINK http: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2009/09/29/112717/appleby-accuses-care-quality-commission-of-seeking-headlines.htm and merely highlighted negative findings. The CQC says many study consequences were haples s. October 2009 The CQC publishes bill of exchange criterions for wellness and societal attention suppliers, and holds run intoing with mental wellness leaders over its presentation of the consequences of its in-patient study. December 2009 Adass criticises the CQC for its intervention of eight councils labelled HYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2009/12/04/113366/adasss-owen-attacks-cqc-over-treatment-of-eight-councils.htm HYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2009/12/04/113366/adasss-owen-attacks-cqc-over-treatment-of-eight-councils.htm precedence for improvementHYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2009/12/04/113366/adasss-owen-attacks-cqc-over-treatment-of-eight-councils.htm HYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2009/12/04/113366/adasss-owen-attacks-cqc-over-treatment-of-eight-councils.htm following one-year public presentation appraisal ( APA ) . Councils better for 7th twelvemonth running. February 2010 The CQC says ?2bn could be saved a twelvemonth from reduced infirmary admittances if joint working improves between wellness and societal attention in first HYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2010/02/10/113768/cqc-health-and-socal-care-integration-can-save-2bn-a-year.htm State of CareHYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //www.communitycare.co.uk/Articles/2010/02/10/113768/cqc-health-and-socal-care-integration-can-save-2bn-a-year.htm study. It promises 2010-11 APA for councils will be tougher. March 2010 Care supplier organic structures slam the CQC for an alleged deficiency of communicating of the procedure for enrollment under its new system. The CQC claims it has engaged extensively. April 2010 The CQC is one twelvemonth old. It starts procedure of registering grownup attention suppliers under new system. National societal attention advisor appointed. This article is published in the 8 April 2010 edition of Community Care under the headline Many happy returns?

Monday, October 21, 2019

Tan vs. Tanto in Spanish

Tan vs. Tanto in Spanish Tan and tanto can be a source of confusion in Spanish because they both can used in comparisons such as as green as and as much as. But the two words, although closely related, are used in grammatically different ways and cant be substituted for each other. One way to think of the main difference between the two is that tan is used as an adverb in those constructions, while tanto is used as an adjective. For this reason, tan doesnt change with the context, while tanto can also exist in the inflected forms tanta, tantos, and tantas. Using Tan Tan basically means so, sometimes such a or as, and is used only before adjectives or adverbs (or nouns used as adjectives). Rita es tan alta como Marà ­a. (Rita is as tall as Marà ­a.)Rita habla tan rpido como Marà ­a. (Rita talks as fast as Marà ­a.) Sentences such as these are by far the most common usage of tan. The phrase  quà © tan  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹can often be translated as how:  Ã‚ ¿Quà © tan inteligente eres?  (How intelligent are you?) Using Tanto Tanto basically means so much or so many or, when used with como, as much or as many. Tengo tanto dinero como Juan. (I have as much money as Juan.)Tengo tanto dinero que no sà © quà © hacer con à ©l. (I have so much money I dont know what to do with it.) Tanto also can be used to make other kinds of comparisons and has a wide variety of colloquial uses; under some circumstances it can be used not only as an adjective but also as a noun, pronoun or adverb. A good dictionary will list at least two dozen different uses. Some examples: Tengo quince y tantos nietos. (I have 15 or so grandchildren.)No quiero estudiar tanto. (I dont want to study so much.) Tanto as a Conjunction Tanto as a fixed form is sometimes used as a conjugation, typically in a phrase that includes como. Dejar de consumir tabaco causa sà ­ntomas tanto fà ­sicos como mentales. (Quitting using tobacco causes symptoms that are as much physical as mental.)Soy consciente que tanto yo como el resto podemos dar un poco ms. (Im aware that I as much as the rest of us can give a little more.) Sample Sentences Using Tan and Tanto El troll de Facebook dice: Tan importante soy que me tienen que bloquear para ser feliz. (The Facebook troll says: I am so important that they have to block me to be happy.) Mà ©xico est tan listo como Panam. (Mexico is as ready as Panama.) El centro de la Tierra est tan caliente como el Sol. (The center of the Earth is as hot as the sun.) Descubre quà © tan hombre eres con este machà ³metro. (Find out how much of a man you are with this macho-meter. This sentence construction, which is unusual, is an exception to the rule that tan isnt used with nouns.)  ¡Quà © tiempo tan feliz! (What a very happy time!) Voy a ser tan rica como pueda. (Im going to be as rich as I can.) Dime tu estilo de crianza y te dirà © quà © tan exitoso podrà ­a ser tu hijo. (Tell me your parenting style and Ill tell you how successful your child could be.)  ¿Es necesario consumir y comprar tanto para ser feliz? (Is it necessary to consume and buy so much to be happy?)  ¡Tengo tanto para hacer! (I have so much to do!) Nunca se vendieron tantos coches elà ©ctricos como en mayo. (Theyve never sold so many electric cars as in March.) Es irà ³nico cà ³mo la vida te da tanta felicidad y luego te llena de tanta tristeza. (Its ironic how life gives you so much happiness and later fills you with so much sadness.) Hay dà ­as que no quiero nada, pero necesito tanto. (There are days that I dont want anything, but I need so much.) Tanto ella como su marido recibieron la noticia con entusiasmo. (She as much as her husband enthusiastically received the news.) Tanto Mà ©xico como Canad han buscado mayor presencia en la ONU. (Mexico as much as Canada has looked for a greater presence in the U.N.) No como tanto ella. (I dont eat as much as she.) Despuà ©s de tantos dà ­as perfectos, empecà © a creer que toda la vida serà ­a asà ­. (After so many perfect days, I began to believe that all of life would be like that.) El amor durar tanto como lo cuides, y lo cuidars tanto como lo quieras. (Love will endure as much as you nurture it, and you will nurture it as much as you want it.) Key Takeaways Both tan and tanto can be used in comparisons meaning as much as or as ____ as, but they arent interchangeable.Tan functions as an adverb, so it doesnt change form with the nouns or adjectives around it.Tanto typically functions as an adjective, so it can take other forms, namely tanta, tantos, and tantas. On those rare occasions it functions as a conjunction, however, it doesnt change form.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

A Quiz About Attribution

A Quiz About Attribution A Quiz About Attribution A Quiz About Attribution By Mark Nichol Punctuation associated with attribution identification of the source of a statement can, when used incorrectly, confuse rather than clarify communication. Troubleshoot these troublesome sentences, paying attention to the relationship of the attribution to the rest of the sentence, and then compare your revisions with my solutions at the bottom of the page: 1. â€Å"Now he needed ‘new worlds to conquer,’ in his own words.† 2. â€Å"She makes this moral argument, ‘Taking whatever we need from the world to support our comfortable lives is not worthy of us as moral beings.’† 3. â€Å"Only a few days before the sisters flew off to the Caribbean, Smith said Jane had moved from her apartment in San Francisco.† 4. â€Å"Unfortunately, he estimated that it’s 25 percent less effective at eliminating odors than standard brands.† 5. â€Å"I think they’re going to have that mentality of: ‘How dare he?’† 6. â€Å"And while Osama bin Ladens killing has dealt a crippling blow to his terrorist organization, she said, ‘Nobody should believe individual al Qaeda leaders cannot be replaced.’† 7. â€Å"To pass a necessity test usually means a negative response to the question: ‘Can the same result be obtained by other means?’† 8. â€Å"He explained that unlike during the previous droughts, ‘When the drought breaks, we will not return to cooler, wetter conditions.’† 9. â€Å"‘We were very worried,’ says Jones, ‘It was the winter from hell.’† 10. â€Å"He voted against the bill, declaring: ‘The only thing this bill will stimulate is the national debt.’† Answers and Explanations 1. The original sentence is correct, but there’s more to good writing that correct grammar. There’s a great opportunity in this sentence for a rhythm of tension and release, so exploit it: â€Å"Now he needed, in his own words, ‘new worlds to conquer.’† 2. When an attribution is in itself grammatically self-contained (â€Å"She makes this moral argument† is a complete sentence), use a colon, rather than a comma, to signal the setup (as I’ve done when prefacing each correction here): â€Å"She makes this moral argument: ‘Taking whatever we need from the world to support our comfortable lives is not worthy of us as moral beings.’† 3. The punctuation in this sentence conveys that Smith made the statement shortly before the sisters’ flight. But â€Å"Smith said† is a parenthetical attribution that tells the reader who made the comment that the move occurred just before the trip: â€Å"Only a few days before the sisters flew off to the Caribbean, Smith said, Jane had moved from her apartment in San Francisco.† 4. This sentence’s problem is the same as the preceding one; it’s only the length of the introductory part of the sentence that differs. The estimate described was not unfortunate; â€Å"unfortunately† is part of the larger sentence, not part of the attribution: â€Å"Unfortunately, he estimated, it’s 25 percent less effective at eliminating odors than standard brands.† 5. By contrast with the second sentence, above, in this case a colon immediately preceding the quotation clumsily brings the sentence to a halt. No punctuation is necessary in this type of construction: â€Å"I think they’re going to have that mentality of ‘How dare he?’† 6. When a person’s comments are partially paraphrased, and an attribution separates an indirect quotation from a direct quotation, the latter element, because it doesn’t constitute a complete sentence, should not begin with a capitalized word even if it is grammatically complete: â€Å"And while Osama bin Ladens killing has dealt a crippling blow to his terrorist organization, she said, ‘nobody should believe individual al Qaeda leaders cannot be replaced.’† 7. As in the fifth example, above, this sentence requires no punctuation preceding the quotation: â€Å"To pass a necessity test usually means a negative response to the question ‘Can the same result be obtained by other means?’† 8. As in the sixth example, above, though the direct quotation is a complete sentence, a preceding paraphrase has been attached to it as an introductory phrase. Even though, unlike in the similar example, the attribution begins the sentence rather than appears between the indirect and direct quotations, the two elements constitute a single statement and the direct quotation should not begin with a capitalized word: â€Å"He explained that unlike during the previous droughts, ‘when the drought breaks, we will not return to cooler, wetter conditions.’† 9. This sentence consists of two complete statements separated by an attribution, so the attribution should be followed by a period: â€Å"‘We were very worried,’ says Jones. ‘It was the winter from hell.’† 10. When an attribution includes a verb, the punctuation following it should be a comma, not a colon: â€Å"He voted against the bill, declaring, ‘The only thing this bill will stimulate is the national debt.’† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Grammar category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:100 Exquisite AdjectivesStory Writing 10135 Synonyms for Rain and Snow

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Osmosis Lab Report Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Osmosis - Lab Report Example Cells require the movement of the chemicals inside and outside the cell for their survival. Cells require the movement of mainly the solute and solvent molecules inside and out of the cells for their proper functioning. The movement of the molecules occurs by active and passive processes. If the cell uses ATP for the transport of the molecules then it is termed as active process and if the molecules crosses the membrane with the help of concentration gradient, then it is called as passive process. Simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis are the types of passive process. Osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a lower solute concentration to the higher solute concentration through a permeable membrane. Water molecule is much smaller than most of the solute molecules. Thus they are able to move through the membranes in which the solute molecules cannot pass through. This property of the water molecule is called as osmosis. The cell membranes are more permeable to the water molecules than most other solvents. As a result the cell membrane allows most of the water molecules to penetrate inside the cell. This results in the hypotonic condition of the cell. As a result the cell swells. Sometimes the solute concentration will be higher outside the cell membrane and as a result, the cell looses its water molecules out. This results in cell shrinkage termed as hypertonic solution. Is there is no change in the solute concentration inside and outside the membrane, then the solution is said to be isotonic. Osmosis is very essential for the biological systems. The biological membranes are semi permeable in nature. Water molecules travel through the plasma membrane by diffusing across the phospholipid bilayer using the transmembrane proteins. Cellophane membrane is a type of partially permeable membrane that can allow the water molecules to pass through. Cellophane membrane is made by regenerating the cellulose b y the addition of some chemicals like alkali, carbon disulfide and sulfuric acid. Cellulose is derived from the wood, hemp and cotton. The Glucose molecules are larger than the water molecules and they don’t diffuse through the cellophane membrane. When the different glucose concentrations are kept separated by the cellophane membrane, the movement of the solvent molecule, (i.e.) the water molecules, from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration occurs. The thermodynamic property of the solution to reach the equal concentration in both sides of the membrane takes place. Materials required: 4 finger bowls 4 pieces dialysis membrane 8 pieces string Metric ruler Hot plate Glass stirring rod Test tubes 50% glucose solution Squeeze bottle of distilled water Paper towels Electronic scale Boiling beads Plastic pan Dropper bottle of Benedict’s solution. Beakers of varying size ( 200 ml, 500 ml, 1000 ml) Pipettes Graduated cylinder ( 10 ml, 25 ml) Distilled water. Method: The 4 cellophane membranes are made active by dipping it in the distilled water. The membranes become wet and flexible. From the stock 50% glucose solution, the appropriate concentration of glucose solutions is prepared by diluting them appropriately with the distilled wat

Friday, October 18, 2019

Apply Design Guidelines to Human-Computer Interaction Methods Essay - 1

Apply Design Guidelines to Human-Computer Interaction Methods - Essay Example The information herein is usually tipped on the interface through the use icons while others are contained in the menu among other features. Nonetheless, the contextual texts help in facilitating to explain controls, functions, and processes. Additionally, the web design shall employ the use of icon, menu, and tooltips to help the user interact effectively and conveniently with the user. Moreover, there will be the use of hyperlinks to link users to others related information. Finally, there will be the use of the system message to inform the user of the system state at any point of the work or the error conditions that may be made in the entry boxes. It should be noted that the design will employ the hypertext since the application and usability website to be designed will be used everywhere around the globe that will also engulf hypertext markup language. There are numerous online Documentations, and the commonly used online documentation is the online help. Regardless of the interface designing, some help facilities are often considered and incorporated into the design. The commonly used help methods that shall be incorporated in the web design include that contextual help, procedural help, referential help, and the conceptual help. Notably, these helper methods are top deployed since they are highly compatible with the Microsoft that may users are likely to use in using the website designed. In addition, each of these helpful resources has a distinct format that must be incorporated as well as spelling the how the text contained in each should be written. Furthermore, their formats often range from short phrases to lengthy explanation depending on the text help method in use. As had been mentioned, the Hypertext often serves two vital roles in defining the protocols that help in defining the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) (Heim, 2008) and the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) both of which play significant roles  in the functionality and usability of the World Wide Web.  

Censorship Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Censorship - Essay Example The act of censorship is now done more for the benefit of children, yet many people believe it should be the responsibility of the parent to monitor what their children read or watch, and not the responsibility of the government or a stranger from an organization. After all, Cleland’s novel was proven to be harmless. However, this might be different if the book were in the hands of a child. It has been brought up of whether or not media should be censored since times and opinions have changed, and if media is censored, if adults should also face censorship to strengthen the protection towards children. The practice of censorship has evolved to protect children more than anybody else, though adults are also effected by this as it becomes difficult for them to access their own mature media. Books and movies that are considered inappropriate are kept out of reach from younger children. These pieces of media contain subject matter that are too advanced for children, such as excess ive violence, sexual activity, drug and alcohol use, or other topics that are thought to be taboo or else unsuitable for young eyes. This is perhaps the main reason, if not the only reason, why books and movies, as well as many video games, are censored from children. Censorship is not done out of a need to deny children of their entertainment, but to ensure that younger children are obtaining entertainment that is right for them. This may also prove to be overly paternalistic to parents since it may mean difficulties in obtaining their own entertainment, but they still need to play their part in making sure that children cannot access their adult material. On the other side of the argument against censoring media is that it causes many people to cross the line between protecting and overprotecting a child. By censoring certain material, children are being denied glimpses into many of the ideas and concepts of the real world. Censorship tends to go too far, sheltering children from the real world around them. They become unaware of all that the world has to offer in way of unique, independent, and creative thoughts and experiences. Censorship also teaches children that, in regard to media, there is an undue concept of good and evil, which can cause a child to continue to censor themselves as they become adults. They begin to be judgmental at a very young age when growing up in a censored environment, never allowing themselves to open up to everything that the world has to offer to their growing minds. Censorship should be used, but implemented in a way so that children cannot gain access to media that is deemed inappropriate by parents, teachers, and other adults that have authority and influence over children. While many schools, families, and even libraries acknowledge media that is inappropriate based on a common standard of decency, such as media involving graphic sex, drugs, and violence, they still make it readily available for young children to have acc ess. This is because a lot of it remains accessible to adults, but still within grasp of children. The material that should be censored should be done so because the material is too advanced, and oftentimes harsh and graphic, for children. Not only can they be negatively impacted by some of what they read

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Explain (with examples) the extent to which SSM was supportive of a Essay

Explain (with examples) the extent to which SSM was supportive of a group approach - Essay Example Today, SSM has become a useful tool in any situation (or problem) involving human activity. Take for instance this trivial situation of two friends watching TV and arguing if the programs were good or bad. Using the SSM model, there will be no point arguing because both are right. Friend A may like it because of the pact action sequences and Friend B may not like it because the plot is too predictable. Whichever it is, SSM model argues that the standard for a good TV programs is inherent in both and one value judgment is not necessarily superior or more right than the other. If these ideas were explicit, the two friends may still argue on some points but their ideas would cease being unsubstantiated opinion and become defensible. Wilson (2001) points that defensibility should be the main criterion in an argument since ‘what is right’ in most cases, is likely unachievable. Such concept is important to complex situations in any social organization that capitalizes on defen sible arguments. This report will then put primary focus on SSM supporting group approach by discussing how SSM rallies group dynamics. Checkland introduced the steps to be followed methodically in SSM. The first step being the identification of the unstructured problem – is best accomplished as a group. For example, when the A.REthinking group was tasked to identify an ill-structured problem, it became easier to consolidate and develop ideas because feedbacks, whether positive or negative, help process and systematize insights. The more diverse the members’ backgrounds are the more enriching the discussion will be. Wilson discussed that the â€Å"people-components† can attribute meaning to their situation and define their own purpose for the organization. Checkland’s collaborators even suggested that the real potential of SSM is best exemplified in its early stages since it is the period when members of the organization achieve

Naguib Mahfouz Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Naguib Mahfouz - Essay Example Considerable recognition will also be given to his contribution to the world of literature through his many successful works which will certainly never fade away even though he has passed. The story of Naguib Mahfouz is similar to the story of modern Egypt itself (Lalami 2006, p.1). Born in 1911 in the Gamaliya district of Cairo, Mahfouz observed the very last days of British colonial rule and Ottoman influence, the nationalist struggle of Saad Zaghloul, the supremacy of King Fuad and King Farouq, the military revolution of 1952, the establishment of the republic, Gamal Abdel Nasser's takeover in 1954, the Suez Canal disaster, the rule of Anwar al-Sadat, the Camp David accords of 1978 and finally the brutal dictatorship of Hosni Mubarak together with the rise of Islamic fundamentalism (Lalami 2006, p.1). A devoted reader, Mahfouz had a lifelong infatuation for the history of ancient Egypt, predominantly its pharaohs: Akhenaten, who rejected pantheism in favor of monotheism; Menenre II, who ruled briefly at the end of the sixth dynasty; Khufu, who built the great pyramid at Giza and Nefertiti, Akhenaten's wife and mother-in-law to Tutankhamen (Breasted 1912, p.56). Mahfouz published his earliest novel in 1939 (The Games of Fate), and since then has written thirty-two novels and thirteen collections of short stories (Allen 1982, p.17). In his old age he had preserved his prolific output, producing a novel every year. The novel genre, which can be traced back to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe, has no significant prototypes in classical Arabic writing (Allen 1982, p.26). Although this thrived in all kinds of narrative, none of them could be described as we recognize the term novel today (Hashmi 1986, p.19). Naguib, who was born to a middle-class family in one of the oldest quarters in Cairo, was to give a face to influential metaphors, in excess of a period of half a century, to the expectations and frustrations of his homeland. Readers have so often identified themselves with his work, a great deal of which has been adapted for the cinema, theater and television, that many of his characters become household names in Egypt and elsewhere in the Arab region (Allen 1982, p.26). Alternatively, his work, though deeply steeped in local reality, appeals to that which is universal and permanent in human nature, as shown by the relatively good reception his fiction has met in other backgrounds (Allen 1982, p.17). Views on Life Even though Mahfouz's novelistic methods have passed, as we have seen, through recognizable stages, one cannot say the same about his world view, the main features of which can be traced back to his earliest works (Allen 1982, p.17). Mahfouz appears to have sorted out the main questions about life at an early juncture of his youth and to have held on the answers he arrived at right up until his death. A sociopolitical vision of man's existence is at the very root of almost everything that Mahfouz has written. Even in a novel with a strong metaphysical claim such as "Al-Tariq" (The Way), the social message is appropriately woven into the texture of the work: man is not meant to spend his life on Earth in a futile search and his only true

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Explain (with examples) the extent to which SSM was supportive of a Essay

Explain (with examples) the extent to which SSM was supportive of a group approach - Essay Example Today, SSM has become a useful tool in any situation (or problem) involving human activity. Take for instance this trivial situation of two friends watching TV and arguing if the programs were good or bad. Using the SSM model, there will be no point arguing because both are right. Friend A may like it because of the pact action sequences and Friend B may not like it because the plot is too predictable. Whichever it is, SSM model argues that the standard for a good TV programs is inherent in both and one value judgment is not necessarily superior or more right than the other. If these ideas were explicit, the two friends may still argue on some points but their ideas would cease being unsubstantiated opinion and become defensible. Wilson (2001) points that defensibility should be the main criterion in an argument since ‘what is right’ in most cases, is likely unachievable. Such concept is important to complex situations in any social organization that capitalizes on defen sible arguments. This report will then put primary focus on SSM supporting group approach by discussing how SSM rallies group dynamics. Checkland introduced the steps to be followed methodically in SSM. The first step being the identification of the unstructured problem – is best accomplished as a group. For example, when the A.REthinking group was tasked to identify an ill-structured problem, it became easier to consolidate and develop ideas because feedbacks, whether positive or negative, help process and systematize insights. The more diverse the members’ backgrounds are the more enriching the discussion will be. Wilson discussed that the â€Å"people-components† can attribute meaning to their situation and define their own purpose for the organization. Checkland’s collaborators even suggested that the real potential of SSM is best exemplified in its early stages since it is the period when members of the organization achieve

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The U.S. Policy toward Native Americans in the 19th Century Article

The U.S. Policy toward Native Americans in the 19th Century - Article Example Similarly, President Jackson instigated forced resettlement of Native American tribes from the Southeast to the west of the Mississippi River. He ensured the aggressive enforcement of the Indian Removal Act. On the other hand, in 1953, President Grant declared that if Native Americans were not forced upon Whites, they would be harmless and his most remarkable activities as President include policies for the protection of African Americans and Native Americans in the West. His policies advocated for their education and wellbeing (Danzinger). Indian removal refers to the policy forced by the government of the United States for the relocation of Native American tribes from the east of the Mississippi River to its west. On the other hand, an Indian reservation refers to an area of land administered by Native American Tribes and by the end of the 19th century there were 300 reservations established in the US. Some tribes ignored the relocation orders and forcing them back onto reservations resulted in a number of Native American massacres. The Indian allotment act allowed the President to divide reservations into separate lands for individual members. Its major aims were to civilize Native Americans and to acquire use of Native-American lands for non-Natives (Gunn) Wounded Knee was the last battle of American-Indian wars which occurred on December 29, 1890, near Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota, the United States of America where, after the demise of Sitting Bull, General Custer's old regiment rounded up about 350 Sioux. The Native Americans were asked by the soldiers to surrender their weapons. Around 300 Native Americans were murdered and their dead bodies were left to freeze on the ground ("The Wounded Knee Massacre.").

Applied Statistics at Grand Canyon University Essay Example for Free

Applied Statistics at Grand Canyon University Essay 1. Which patient scored the highest on the preoperative CVLT Acquisition? What was his or her T score? The 3rd patient scored 63 which is the highest CVLT T-score. 2. Which patient scored the lowest on postoperative CVLT Retrieval? What was this patient’s T score? The 4th patient scored the lowest on the postoperative CVLT Retrieval with a score of 23. 3. Did the patient in Question 2 have more of a memory performance decline than average on the CVLT Retrieval? Provide a rationale for your answer. Yes, because he scored 23 and the average is 38.2. 4. What is the mean ( X) and standard deviation (SD) for preoperative T score for CVLT Acquisition? The mean for preoperative T score for CVLT acquisition is 46.35, and the SD is 5.061, calculated using Excel auto sum function. 5. Is the preoperative Retrieval T score for Patient 5 above or below the mean for the norm of the group? Provide a rationale for your answer. The score for patient 5 on preoperative Retrieval T score (52) is above the mean for the norm of the group (47.36). 6. Assuming that the distribution of the preoperative CVLT Retrieval T scores is normal, the middle 68% of the patients had T scores between what two values? 7. Assuming that the distribution of scores for the postoperative CVLT Retrieval T scores is normal, the middle 68% of the patients had T scores between what two values? 8. The researchers state that it appears that the functional integrity of the left temporal lobe, despite evidence of structural abnormality, plays a considerable role when it comes to memory outcomes following left ATL. Can the findings from this study be generalized to a larger population? Provide a rationale for your answer. No, because, according to our source, the sample size is too small to generalize the results for a larger population. 9. If a patient had a raw score = 30, what would his/her postoperative CVLT Retrieval T score be? Tscore=10X/SD+(50-10Xo/SD) Tscore=10(30)/1.414+(50-10(39.294))/1.414 Tscore=-15.729 10. Did patients demonstrate more postoperative memory declines among CVLT Retrieval T scores than CVLT Acquisition T scores? Provide a rationale for your answer No, the number of declines in both postoperative categories is the same(13).

Monday, October 14, 2019

Effective Leadership Strategies in the NHS

Effective Leadership Strategies in the NHS The emphasis on leadership in the National Health Service (NHS) Plan has been one of the most important priorities for nurses and their health professional colleagues. Leadership throughout organisation and across the whole health economy is viewed fundamental for implementing and sustaining change (Department of Health (DH 2002).The NHS Plan clearly articulates the need to modernise the healthcare service with the intention to improve publics health (DH 2000). The goal of public health is to fulfil societys interest in assuring conditions in which population can be healthy through organised efforts and informed choice. To achieve this, the NHS requires dynamic intelligent leaders at all levels of the organisation. The following paragraphs attempts to critically discuss how effective leadership strategies can contribute to the delivery of high quality health within contemporary public health through health protection in combating infectious diseases. Additionally, the paper presents a definition of public health, health protection, and leadership. Some leadership contemporary theories are examined before considering which theory is relevant to health protection and provides a rationale for choice. Key leadership competencies such as vision, communication and creating the environment will be outlined and discussed. The term Public health is defined as the science and art of preventing diseases, prolong life and promoting good health and well being through organised efforts and effective leadership skills (Rowitz 2009). The concept is concerned with the health of the population rather than individuals. It has been stated, that public health is not just dealing with illness, and looks at the impact on health of social, economic, political and environmental factors but also acknowledges human behaviour. Public health correlates with health protection. Both concepts play an integral role in protecting health of general public through effective leadership strategy such as prevention and emergency planning. As a consequent, reducing potential threats to health which includes infectious diseases both communicable or non communicable diseases, and environmental hazards such as chemical or radiation exposures. Furthermore, protecting the health of the public has emerged as a distinct area of practice as well as top priority on the government agenda (Reference). WHAT IS LEADERSHIP Leadership is imperative for the NHS to sustain success in Public health. Leadership is a very complex multidimensional concept and has been defined in various ways. The concept leadership and what makes an effective leader has evoked strong debates in the late 1970s and 1980s (Tamkin et al 2010). In addition, it was at this time that theorists started to defined leadership. From the wealth of available literature there appeared to be several common features central to the phenomenon of leadership. Leadership is a process (Bass 1990), involves influence, occurs within group context, involves goal attainment and leadership exist at all level (Northouse 2001). In other words leadership is seen as unifying people around values, constructing the social world for others around those values and helping people to mobilise change (Stanley 2009). Management and leadership Cook (2004) has found that leadership and management are two concepts that are used interchangeably. However, these words describe two different concepts (Day 2001). Leadership is a process which is similar to management. Both functions involve working with people. While management have to do with providing order and consistency in organisations; leadership produces change. On the other hand, Cannella and Monroe (1997) argued the difference distinction between leaders and manager are narrowing. Emotional intelligence In order to demonstrate and maintain effective leadership characteristics an individual has to utilise emotional intelligence. Furthermore research on emotion intelligence has confirmed that this concept is what differentiate the good from outstanding leader Goleman (2000) thinks that leaders who developed emotional intelligence becomes aware of the emotions of others and are more likely to promote a healthy working environment. Gould (2000), further argued that leaders who show characteristics associated with emotional intelligence are more likely to have a positive impact on staffs. Thus this will contribute to the delivery of high quality public health which could improve organisation outcomes. There are several types contemporary theories of leadership such as the trait theories style theories and contingency theories. The trait theory developed from the great man theory assumes that effective leaders are born not made. This derives from the belief that there is a common set of trait of successful leaders. This theory provides foundation for considering the traits require of a leader. This theory is likely to be rejected by many people. Shaw (2007) argued that the trait approach is limited because the context in which leadership take place is not acknowledge. In contrast, the contingency theory which is based on situational theory argues that the effectiveness of leadership style depends on the particular situation and that leaders are more effective when they are able to change their style to adapt to different situations (Bolden et al 2003). The essence that underpinning this theory is that there is no single best style of leadership approach and that different situation will require different style of leadership (Bolden et al 2003) which is important in todays health service. For instant should an emergency situation arise, the leader would demonstrate autocratic leadership skill rather that participative. Effectiveness correlates with transactional and transformational leadership. Transformational leaders use transactional leadership strategies as well to be effective and this combination corresponds closely to ideal leadership (Lowe, Kroeck Sivasubramaniam, 1996). Transactional theories Also, emotional intelligence has a strong connection with transformational leadership. Transformation leaders are well suited to todays fast changing health care environment where adaptation is extremely important. Within this leadership theory there is an emphasis on empowerment and the development of potential for the achievement of long term goals (Shaw 2007), through mobilisation in order to make change (Bolden et al 2003). Recent research states that transformational leadership style is positively associated with higher employee satisfaction and better performance thus would improve public health. According to Taylor (2009) it is possible to use transformation leadership skills within a transaction setting. On the other hand, transactional leadership is concerned with influencing others to achieve goals through rules corrective actions, and contingent rewards (Burn 1978 and Bass 1999). Transactional leader avoids risks, is result focused, not flexible and adaptive to situations. It could be said that the environment in which the NHS operates lends itself to transactional leadership for the achievement of targets, performance management and impact of competency or outcomes. Whereas, transformational leaders are creative, innovative, takes risks and influences and inspires others.. For this reason, many theorists in leadership theory advocate transformational approach in organisation to enable people and organisation to achieve their fullest potential. Leadership styles Theorist have indentified many different leadership styles. Firstly the trait theory as known as great man theory identifies characteristic that such as intellect, personality and class. The can be considered as genetic influences. Tamkin agrees that it is very difficult to teach people the traits they need but says that some of these can be learned. Some forms of management training, an example of this is psychometric profiling as this will give staffs an insight into what they are like and what might be areas for improvement Discussion health work environment As the shortage of nurses increases and resources remain limited leadership in the NHS setting has become a topical point for discussion. Thus organisations are searching for ways to create a healthy work environment in attempt to recruit and more importantly retain staff. Tamkin et al (2010) argued in their report that outstanding leaders are also able to see things holistically. Tamkin et al 2010 adds. outstanding leaders act in a way that makes a difference to the immediate recipient and they also think about how this will impact on the organization; that is to say, creating a good atmosphere in the workplace will not only affect staff but feed through to the public. This can be achieved through flexibility, trust and respect. Support, consideration and motivation are also some of the characteristics of an effective leader which correlate with transformational leadership. Furthermore Tamkin et al (2010) confirms that flexibility trust and respect are the corner stone of effective leadership. Such leadership characteristics are the key thus, can result in positive outcomes and therefore a healthier work environment. Communication Many of the problems that occur in an organization are the direct result of people failing to communicate. Leadership has its corner stone, the ability to communicate.ÂÂ   When theÂÂ   word communicate used, it is referring not only to the words one uses to transferÂÂ   factual information to others, but also to other messages that are sent andÂÂ   received.ÂÂ   The purpose of communication in an organisation is to make agreements on what action is going to be taken to achieve the desired outcomes to create results of shared vision. The NHS need to create an effective communication cultures within it organisation to sustain success. In fact Tamkins et al (2010) points out that, listening may be the single most powerful skill of communication because it is an act of respect and valuing others. Being a good listener enables individuals to understand where each team members are coming from and analyze how each individual thinks. Communication correlates with pro ductivity, profitability, public satisfaction and employee retention. Effective communication is a key to bring confidence and trust among employee. Effective communication skills are therefore essential. Effective communication needs to be straightforward in order to aid and understanding (Tamkin et al 2010). Tamkin et al (2010) illustrates some essential aspects of communication, slowing the thoughts processes, increasing understanding, testing conclusion, listening constructively, getting to the essence of things and exploring areas of disagreement. This indicates that, to be an effective leader one has to understand all the factors that influences communication which transform into effective message in order to address current public health issues such as infectious diseases (Rowitz 2009). Conclusion Effective leadership is essential if the health service is to modernise and provide improvement through health protection and public health. The leadership qualities required in modern health care service derive from transformational leadership theory and include the ability to motive and influence others to produce change to provide high standard of care for patients and a harmonious working environment for staff. Leadership provides vision and mobilisation to achieve goal. In essence, for organisation to run effectively including the NHS there need to be leadership and management. While leaders develop and articulate strategic vision to produce change and move organisations forward managers co ordinates to ensure that the job gets done. One thing that is certain is that change will always be a part of the NHS and learning how to work within this culture to the benefit of the public will remain a priority. Leadership describes the ability to influence, motivate and enable members of an organisation to contribute to the effectiveness and success of the organisation. Leadership is valued in the healthcare setting, especially when it helps to achieve goals that are beneficial to protecting health, such as the enactment of effective preventive- health policies. Most importantly, individuals with effective leadership qualities can foster a culture of cooperation which may improve public health. Thus, it is evident that meaning of leadership and management are noticably different. Indeed some managers may dislike the distinction, because it illustrates that managers are not leaders, however leaders are actual managers (Machie1987). Seeing the bigger picture Outstanding leaders recognise the interconnected nature of their organisations and act accordingly. Understanding that talk is work Outstanding leaders talk to staff to find out what motivates them and how they can boost enthusiasm. Giving time and space to others Outstanding leaders allow people more freedom and influence over the work they do. Growing through performance Outstanding leaders invest in their workforce and use challenges presented to encourage growth, learning and engagement. Putting we before me Outstanding leaders work hard on team spirit, shared decision-making, collaborative working and forming strong bonds between teams. In short leadership should be trustworthy.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Individuals That Contributed To The Civil War Essay -- essays papers

Individuals That Contributed To The Civil War The Civil War was brought about by many important people, some that wanted to preserve and some that wanted to eradicate the primary cause of the war, slavery. There were the political giants, such as Abraham Lincoln, and Stephen Douglas. There were seditious abolitionists such as John Brown, escaped slaves such as Dred Scott, and abolitionist writers like Harriet Beecher Stowe. These were the people who, ultimately, brought a beginning to the end of what Lincoln called â€Å"a moral, a social, and a political wrong†(Oates 66). Southern states, including the 11 states that formed the Confederacy, depended on slavery to support their economy. Southerners used slave labor to produce crops, especially cotton. Although slavery was illegal in the Northern states, only a small proportion of Northerners actively opposed it. The main debate between the North and the South on the eve of the war was whether slavery should be permitted in the Western territories recently acquired during the Mexican war, which included New Mexico, part of California, and Utah. â€Å"Opponents of slavery were concerned about its expansion, in part because they did not want to compete against slave labor†(Oates 15). In 1851, a literary event startled the country. Harriet Beecher Stowe, an American writer and abolitionist, wrote an antislavery novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, that was published serially in a newspaper and in book form in 1852. â€Å"It was a forceful indictment of slavery and one of the most powerful novels of its kind in American literature. The success of the book was unprecedented, selling 500,000 copies in the United States alone within five years, and it was translated into more than 20 foreign languages†(Oates 29). It was widely read in the States and abroad, and moved many to join the cause of abolition. The South indignantly denied this indictment of slavery. â€Å"Stowe’s book increased partisan feeling over slavery and intensified sectional differences. It did much to solidify militant antislavery attitude in the North, and therefore was an important factor in the start of the American Civil War†(Oates 31). In 1854, Congress passed the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and stated that each territory could be admitted as a state â€Å"with... ... Instead they joined the lower South with the secession of Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee. This secession by the South lead to the opening to the American Civil War. The war over slavery was brought about by many important people, who used many different ways to express their points of view. Some exhibited their dissatisfaction with slavery by debating, some by using violence, some by suing in court, and some by writing a story. These were all effective strikes against the South, and primary causes of the war. In conclusion, these people ultimately brought a beginning to the end of what Lincoln called, â€Å"a moral, a social, and a political wrong†(Oates 66). Bibliography Bradford, Ned. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. Appleton-Century Inc., New York. 1956. Oates, Stephen B. The Whirlwind of War. Harper Collins Publishers, New York. 1998. Woodworth, Steven E. Davis and Lee at War. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 1995. â€Å"Emancipation Proclamation†. http://libertyonline.hypermall.com/Lincoln/emancipate. html â€Å"Jefferson Davis to Congress of the Confederate States†. http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~pjdavis/620225.html

Friday, October 11, 2019

Government and Education: Partners or Competitors Essay

The United States government has been subsidizing education for decades in increasingly stronger ways. Today, government invests multi-billion dollar price tags in education on all levels. Secondary education is highly subsidized by government on a federal, state and local level. K-12 education has a hand in the subsidy game as well. There has been controversy regarding whether or not subsidizing secondary education is beneficial to the students, staff and institution. There are also those that say that government involvement with K-12 education can be more of a hindrance than effective assistance. Another hot topic regarding education subsidies is charter schools and what their impact is on public education, and whether or not the programs should be eligible for government subsidies as well. â€Å"The Higher Education Act of 1965 is the basis for many of today’s postsecondary education subsidies, including student loan and grant programs, college library aid, teacher training programs, and other subsidies†¦ Federal aid for higher education soared from $10 billion in fiscal 2000 to $30 billion in fiscal 2008. (McCluskey & Edwards, 2009) Education subsidies have given students that might not otherwise have been able to afford college the opportunity to attend. Grants are funds that do not have to be repaid. Loans are funds that must be repaid, after the student stops taking classes; and have very low interest rates. â€Å"The rise in student subsidies over the decades appears to have fueled inflation in education costs. Tuition and other college costs have soared as subsidies have risen. † (McCluskey & Edwards, 2009) The costs of college tuition and fees has risen dramatically over the years. The steep rise in costs directly correllates with the rise in subsidy funds. â€Å"Federal control over K-12 education has risen dramatically in recent decades. Congress has increased funding for the schools while imposing layers of rules and regulations on local school districts. † (McCluskey, K-12 Education Subsidies, 2009) The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) states that it is, â€Å"To close the achievement gap with accountability, flexibility, and choice, so that no child is left behind. † (Ed. ov, 2012) â€Å"Members of Congress and the Department of Education readily admit that the current NCLB requirements†¦ ask too much of students too quickly. Unfortunately, folks in Washington have neglected to make any changes and are moving forward with a flawed system that is setting up students, schools and states to fail. † (O’Connor, 2012) It is thought that the idea behind NCLB is a good one because it encourages schools and school districts to increase standards for education of all students. The program, however, seems to expect more of students than can be achieved in such short time frames. It is not always possible to take a failing group of students and transform them into high achievers in a one year span of time. (O’Connor, 2012) An additional aspect of education includes the charter school model. Charter schools were introduced originally to give parents and students a free alternative to public education. Charter schools are freed from the traditional bureaucracy and regulations that some feel divert a school’s energy and resources toward compliance rather than excellence. Proponents of charter schools argue that instead of jumping through procedural hoops and over paperwork hurdles, educators can focus on setting and reaching high academic standards for their students. † (Unknown) There are multiple sources for funding for Charter Schools according to the National Charter School Resource Center website. Not all forms of funding come from the government. There is private, foundation, state and federal funding opportunities for these charters. Most charter organizations boast high achievement of their students with staggering graduation statistics. These entities are concentrating on teaching children at their own speed and seem to be quite successful on a total scale. Overall, education subsidies are utilized for the positive assistance for students and institutions to enhance educational availability and experiences. The purpose of this government funding is to assist educational facilities with improvement and competitiveness with a global educational marketplace; as well as providing funding for students to pay tuition and fees. In elementary education, this assistance provides funding for school districts for each child in attendance. Although the details of this government funding may need some updating, the program is still quite necessary. There would be many students who could not attend school without government assistance; as well as schools that would surely close without government funding.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Euro Disney: from Dream to Nightmare (1987-1994)

For years, the Disney Theme Park Empire was built upon three crown jewels located in California, Florida, and Japan. Combining the familiar, family-friendly characters and images upon which the Disney reputation was built. With clean and well-operated theme parks helped Disney set new standards for efficient, friendly customer service in the theme park industry. Its parks became major international tourist attractions. However, when Euro Disney opened in Paris in 1992, the standard model of Disney theme parks ran into trouble.Tackling the many problems faced by Euro Disney operations has posed many new challenges to Disney, forcing them to reconsider their standard model for success. Disney must find ways to adapt their theme park model in a manner which preserves the best of Disney. 9. 1 The challenges facing Euro Disney Early hopes for a similar success soured soon after Euro Disney opened, and the experience of opening Euro Disney delivered unexpected surprises to Disney managemen t. The park soon encountered several major problems: AttendanceDisney’s consulting firm has projected first year park attendance to range between 11. 7 and 17. 8 million attendees. To be cautious, Disney used the littlest figures and predicted eleven million attendees. While initial hotel bookings at the theme park during the summer looked promising, as the theme park entered its first winter, bookings dropped to twenty percent or less of monthly projects. Staffing Staffing shortages created a negative cycle in which extra workloads on employees resulted in increased turnover, which in turn hurt Disney’s ability to retain and develop its employees.Poor union relations caused by reactions to Disney’s exacting requirements for dress and appearance, such as a ban on facial hair and colored stockings, as well as to Disney’s high standards of customer service, further hurt their ability to attract employees. Customer Service Euro Disney was failing to deliver the high level of customer service standard to Disney theme parks, as well as failing to provide the service needs that were unique to the European market.Many employees failed to conform to the high standards of customer service that were expected in Disney theme parks. Lack of local management and autonomy Walt Disney Company owned a 49% share in Euro Disney. This resulted in management by remote control, in which decisions were often made by people who were far removed from the day-to-day operations of the park, and who did not have a strong understanding of the culture and the market. 9. 2 Recommendations Upon reviewing the key problems faced by Euro Disney, there are several issues which require attention.These include: Improving customer service Accommodations and services should be made to better fit the needs and desires of the multi-lingual and multi-cultural European customer base. Greater efforts should be made to identify and retain employees that are compatible with the corporate values of Disney with regards to customer service. Decentralize management Disney should hire local consultants to provide insight of local governmental ordinances, as well as customs that the business should follow.Decision making should be more decentralized, away from the U. S. parent company. Procedures should be made specifically for France. Communications with its employees and the overall morale among employees have to be improved. Options to overcome the housing shortage should be explored to allow workers to live closer to the theme park. In addition, Disney should make a greater effort to increase the diversity of its workforce, to provide a better level of service for visitors from outside of France.Better culture adaptation and understanding of the European market Disney must better understand and meet the different habits, expectations, and needs of the European theme park visitors. In addition, a greater role should be given to European investors in planning and decision making, to provide more of a European perspective in managing the operations of the theme park. Maintain operational flexibility As the organization is still dealing with a large range of unknowns, flexible problem-solving attitudes should be encouraged to help allow Disney to learn and adapt to its new environment.Disney has achieved a strong market position in other locations, and there is no reason to believe the organization cannot achieve a similar success in Europe, provided it is willing to make the same long-term commitment. Develop more realistic planning Plans for a second phase should not have been allowed to advance until such time that the problems facing the first phase were corrected, giving them a more secure base of knowledge upon which plans and decisions could be made. Otherwise, the company risks duplicating and compounding the problems encountered with its first phase.

History of gambling Essay

?In modern day America, gambling is seen everywhere. Whether it is gambling on a sporting event, a horse race, a game of cards, or any other event, it is seen as a common practice among many American citizens. The most popular place for one to gamble is a casino. There are many casinos throughout the country, and despite the many critics of such venues, these casinos are here to stay for quite some time to come. Starting in 1931, Nevada took control of the casino gambling market and held a monopoly within this industry. It was the first state to have legalized commercial casino gambling, and it was the only state to have such legislation until 1976 (Morse, Goss 13-14). During the 1950’s, Las Vegas started to develop rapidly, opening many casinos within the city. Throughout the 1960’s most of these top-end casinos were purchased by Howard Hughes, which led to an ending of organized crime in the Las Vegas area. Corporations then began building and purchasing casino properties. The profitability of such properties made entering the casino industry quite attractive. This was the beginning of the transition of casinos from a simple form of gaming to a legitimate business (History of US Gambling). In 1976, commercial casino gaming was legalized in New Jersey, and Atlantic City began to thrive in ways similar to Las Vegas. This was the outcome that was hoped for, because it was done in an effort to revitalize Atlantic City. Casinos started to be built in Atlantic City, and a popular location for these casinos was the city boardwalk, along with in the marina district (Morse, Goss 14). More than a decade later, several states began to legalize commercial casino gambling. There are currently fifty-seven counties in the United States that allow commercial casino gambling. In states other than Nevada, a good majority of commercial casino gaming takes place adjacent to a river or some form of a body of water that creates a geographic border dividing states. This promotes the idea of riverboat gambling, along with the competition between each state and their neighbors for their gambling supporters (Morse, Goss 14-15). Soon after the rapid expansion of legal gambling locations throughout the country, tribal casino gambling became an important part of today’s casino industry. Tribal casino gambling is a practice that came to place after the 1987 Supreme Court decision in California v. Cabazon Band of Mission Indians. This case determined that the state of California did not have the proper authority to use its regulatory statutes for the gambling activities that took place on Indian reservations. The only institution that had complete authority over the issue was the federal government; therefore congressional authorization was necessary for state power to enact regulations. In 1988, Congress responded by passing and enacting the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA). This was done for the purpose of balancing both the interests of the states and those tribes that resided within them (Morse, Goss 18-19). There were many policy goals that the IGRA aimed to accomplish. The first was to promote economic development and self-sufficiency amongst tribes. The second goal was to create a regulatory base that protected Indian gaming from organized crime, to make sure that the only beneficiary of the gaming operations is the tribe itself, and to ensure that the gaming operations are both fair and honest. The final goal was to establish an organization that would assist in these purposes, thus the creation of the National Indian Gaming Commission. Basically, the IGRA allowed tribes the right to build and run gaming facilities, or casinos, on their reservations to the same extent as the gaming allowed by state law (Morse, Goss 19). Tribal gaming has proven to be quite beneficial for Indian tribes in the United States. The tribes that have benefited the most are those that have exclusive rights to owning and operating casinos within their state. That means that specific states have an agreement with the tribes in their state that there will not be any commercial casinos within the state, just tribal casinos on tribal territory. This creates endless opportunities for tribal members, allowing them to generate large revenues and provide jobs for many members of their tribe (Morse, Goss 20-21). More recently, a new type of casino has emerged quickly into the gambling business, that being racetrack casinos, or racinos. These casinos are essentially a horse-racing track, along with many other casino features, such as slot machines, video gambling terminals, card tables, etc. This brings in a diverse crowd of people, for a lot of people only like to gamble on live racing events. It also helps states contain gaming expansion to their current racing grounds, and the economic benefits have quite a positive effect for the state (Morse, Goss 22). Each type of casino benefits the state in different ways. By a slight margin, there are more commercial casinos in the United States than tribal casinos, but tribal casinos are being built more rapidly (192 built between 2004-2007, as opposed to 175 commercial casinos built), so it is expected they will pass up commercial casinos in the near future. States benefit most from commercial casinos, receiving on average 16. 4% of revenues, as opposed to just 6. 1% of revenue from the tribal casinos (Morse, Goss 23). One factor that has led to major success for casinos in the United States is the great amount of promotion and advertising. The average casino spends 2. 5% of all revenues on promotion and advertising, which is a heavy amount compared to many other business industries. Throughout the years of the existence of legalized gambling, casinos have been figuring out the secret to generating the highest possible revenue, and that is through promotion. Promotions for casinos originally started out pretty basic, offering a patron a free bet if they come to the casino, or a free drink or meal. With the addition of hotels to many casinos, casinos began offering free night stays to customers, and sometimes even free transportation both to and from the casino for the time of their stay. Since then, there has been such an intense competition between casinos to attract gamblers to their establishment, so more and more promotions started to come into place and be offered by casinos around the country (Morse, Goss 27-28). Some casinos found their best strategy was to pay their patrons to play. This came in either the form of simply handing the patron money upon walking in the door (usually between 5-$20, but sometimes upwards of $100), or paying the person for the amount of time they spent in the casino. This is done by activating a â€Å"player card†, and every time that player sits down to play a game, they scan their card at that station and the system keeps track of how much time the player has spent gambling. Their account is then credited with however much money they earned during their time spent at the casino (Ogwyn). Competition between casinos continued to grow every year, and still does to this day. Promotions have become a necessity in order for a casino to succeed, and many amenities have become expected by patrons upon entering a casino. For one, soft drinks are expected to be complimentary at every casino. Many casinos have waiters and waitresses walking around taking orders, so there is a convenience of receiving a soft drink without needing to get up from your chair. It is seen as courteous to tip the servers, and is also seen as good karma for the gambling that is done after. The most intense promotion competitions take place in the major casino markets. Harrah’s is a major casino corporation, and it is one of the highest spenders when it comes to promotions. In 2005, it initiated possibly the biggest promotion in casino history, and that was the $1,000,000 Treasure Hunt. To partake in the hunt, customers had to go to one of the many Harrah’s Casino locations in the country, and depending how much time the customer spent at the casino, they earned an entry (or multiple entries, depending on the frequency of visits) into the contest. These entries represented an opportunity to partake in the actual treasure hunt, which took place in Las Vegas on November 10, 2005. A treasure chest containing $1,000,000 was placed in a remote desert location, and whoever found it first kept it all. This created an uproar of hype for Harrah’s Casinos, and has helped increase revenues in the following years since as well. Many other casinos learned from that, and started similar promotions to help boost their own revenues. This is a good example of how casinos have been learning from each other throughout time, and adjusting quickly to whatever is necessary for maximum business. The bottom line when it comes to casino promotions: do whatever it takes to get customers through the door; revenues will generate from there (Morse, Goss 28). Many studies have been done to find the effect of legalized casino gambling in an area on the residents who reside in that area. A study done by Morse and Goss in 2005 had surprising results, finding that counties that legalized casino gambling experienced lower personal bankruptcy rates in the first several years of having a casino operating in the county. After those years, however, it was found that the personal bankruptcy rates began to rise, eventually becoming higher than the rates from before the legalization of casino gambling (Morse, Goss 53). Casinos have been growing and expanding ever since their first existence. It is a unique industry in that, unlike many other large industries, it is not that crucial to focus on cutting costs, while instead it is best to just focus on generating revenues. As said before, this industry has a history of experiencing great success, and it is only getting greater and greater each year. Looking at some statistics from 1998-2003 is a good way to show an example of this growth; the average number of employees for stand-alone casinos in the United States went from 201 in 1998 to 265 in 2003, and in casino hotels it grew from 988 to 1,208 employees. Average pay for these employees grew as well. In 1998, stand-alone casino employees earned on average $21,700 a year, while in 2003 they earned $25,100 a year. It was a similar jump in salary for casino hotel employees, going from earning on average $23,700 a year to $26,100 a year (Morse, Goss 55). Today, the United States has an incredibly large market for casino gambling. There was an estimated 147 billion U. S. dollars in global revenue from casino gaming, and 60 billion of those dollars was from United States gambling. In the twenty states with legalized commercial gambling, there are about 450 commercial casinos in the United States (CASINO GAMBLING HISTORY). Gambling has been around since the beginning of United States history, and the creation and expansion of gambling centers that we call casinos has led to many opportunities for both growth and decline for citizens in this country. Whether viewed as positive or negative, casinos are here to stay for some time.