Thursday, January 31, 2019

Anne Hutchinson :: essays research papers fc

Anne Hutchinson challenged the traditional role of women in the Puritan social club through her opposing religious beliefs. Anne Hutchinson was most likely not the send-off woman to have her own thoughts. She was simply the first to act on them. Anne Hutchinson was born on or about July17, 1591 in Alford, Licolnshire, England. She was the daughter of lofty Francis Marbury. Rev. Marbury spoke out that many of the ordained ministers in the Church of England were sorry to guide peoples souls. For this act of defiance, he was put in jail for integrity year. Anne read many of her fathers books on theology and religion. Much of Annes independence and leaveingness to verbalize out was due to her fathers example. Anne admired her father for his defiance of traditional perform principles. Then in 1612 she married William Hutchinson. Together they had 15 children. In 1634 she and her keep up moved to capital of Massachusetts. Here Anne began holding informal church meetings in her h ome discussing the pastors services and also pr apieceing her beliefs to her followers. Threatened by meetings she held in her Boston home, the clergy charged Hutchinson with hersey. An outspoken female in a male hierarchy, Hutchinson had pocket-size hope that many would speak in her defense, and she was being tried by the General Court. In 1636 she was charged with hersey and banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony. Several long time later when she moved to New York she was killed in an Indian attack. Anne challenged the Puritan clergy. She believed that "1.One advise feel ones salvation and is filled with the spirit of perfection after conversion. 2.One neednt be learned in the Bible or in the Puritan writers in order to be saved. 3.The ministers are all under the covenant of works, demur John Cotton, who is under the covenant of grace.4. Inner light is the guarantee of salvation.5. all responsibility for salvation is placed on Christ. 6.Every person has the ear of God if only he or she would ask for it, and listen to the answer. 7.Indian slavery is molest - people of all skin colors are of one blood. 8.Sunday shouldnt be set aside as the Lords Day because every day is the Lords day. 9.Christians will have new bodies when they get to heaven.10.Predestination is unfounded.11.Prayers should not be memorized, but stir by love for God, waiting on Him.12.Holy Spirit dwells within each Christian like a personal union.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Black Criminal Stereotypes and Racial Profiling Essay

Harper Lee vividly describes the immorality of racism and prejudice. Lee reveals the galore(postnominal) racist practices that take place in a small town in Alabama. Jean Louise Finch who is referred to as Sc place, shares mevery incidences that took place while she was growing up with her brother Jem and father Atticus. tom turkey Robinson is a character that is falsely accused of beating and raping a face cloth woman and is found guilty. Atticus Finch who is not only a extraordinary father to Sc out(a) and Jem, but also performs miracles in the courtroom as a remarkable lawyer for Maycomb county, is standing as toms lawyer in the trial.Lee exposes the many racist and prejudice individuals with a specific character and that character is Tom Robinson. When Bob Ewell goes to proclaim he points at Tom and says I markn that grim n**** distant ruttin on my Mayella (pg. 173). Bob Ewell is portraying Tom to be an animal who has go against his daughter. BlackDemps 2Men were(are) usually portrayed in this modal value because of the racist ideologies that all black males are aggressive and all black males are rapists. Tom is an impoverished black male attending a trial, with an all-white jury because he was accused of raping a white woman, due to these things he is at an automatic risk of macrocosm proclaimed guilty and denied any justice. Atticus takes the circumstance to defend Tom, knowing he would be disgrace for it, and looked down upon, as a white man in America. eve though evidence of Toms innocence was displayed to the jury, they still announced him guilty because of their racist and prejudice ideologies, instead of analyzing the factual evidence that was presented to them. Relationships amidst whites and blacks were forbidden so when Mayella became attracted to Tom she felt a sense of guilt. She knew that she would be looked down upon in the white community, which is why she did not hesitate to guile in court and to herself about the situation . If theres just unmatchable kind of folks, why cant they get along with apiece other? If theyre all alike, why do they go out of their management to despise each other? (lee, 259). Scout is beginning to see the hatred and the iniquitous way that battalion of color are being treated and she is beginning to think on her own and view the serviceman and the way of life in a more mature manner.Demps 3When Scout asks Atticus if he believes he will win the case he answers Simply because we were licked a hundred years originally we started is no reason for us not to try to win (Lee, 101). In this quote, Atticus is referring to the racism and prejudice in general terms. He is expression that just because the world is set up a authentic way doesnt mean he has to follow the trends. African Americans have been considered to be less than a human for years and traditionally in a case like such, it does not go in the African Americans favor. So Atticus is saying just because it is traditi onally more than likely that Tom wont win, that does not mean that Atticus cant try to help Tom. You never really understand a soul until you consider things from hispoint of view Until you climb inside of his skin and head around in it. (Lee, 321). Atticuss ways of processing and analyzing certain situations are very admiring, he tends to think about all of the disparate perspectives in a situation before he takes any live up to or speaks any words. Harper Lee uses Atticus as a moral compass, he is seen as the opposer, being the N***** lover in this circumstance.Mockingbirds dont do one thing except reservation music for us to enjoy. They dont eat up peoples gardens, dont nest in corncribs, they dont do one thing but sing their hearts out for us. Thats why its a sin to kill a Mockingbird. (Lee,

Discrimination or Disparity in Policing

divergence refers to a difference in the miscellanea of treatment presumption to individuals based on the race, ethnic background, amicable class, gender and so forth. difference on the a nonher(prenominal) hand refers to a difference in outcomes of a situation which is not necessarily as a result of derived function treatment or any kind of sloped treatment. According to Wrobleski (2005), secretion dismiss be defined as a differential unequalised treatment exhibited by a person when dealing with an individual from a true race, sex, religion or ethnic origin.In policing, all citizens in a country are entitled to equal add of protection beneath the state laws as a sign of democracy. Discrimination in policing occurs when natural law officers in a given state fail to practice medium treatment when dealing with their playmates and members of the public due to race, gender, ethnic origin, skin tinct or religion biases and it is a bit different from distinction. For ins tance, much avocation constabularymen are known to easily forgive women drivers who violate traffic rules alone the same natural law beat backmen become genuinely strict when dealing with masculine drivers.On the other hand, women are known to be more careful drivers than their male counterparts and thus, not many women drivers violate traffic rules. The fact that there are many male traffic rules violators than women might lead to approximately difference in the number of traffic tickets given to women as opposed to those given to men. This kind of difference will be referred to as divergence and not secretion. The patrol force has in the recent past being highly associated with cases of discrepancy and favoritism.This paper seeks top identify the pil pitiable slips of distinction and disparity in policing in the first place based on gender, race and class. Racial secretion and disparity. The issue of racial and ethnic discrimination and disparity in policing has been widely researched and close studies assign that there is a common pattern of systematic discrimination and disparity related to factors such as involvement in criminal activities, drug abuse and so forth. Systematic discrimination in policing can be defined as the type of differential treatment which is always subject in a states nicety system disregarding of the time or place.Most of racial discrimination in the justice systems exists in form of racial profile (Wrobleski, 2005). Racial profiling refers to a situation whereby members of a certain race or ethnic origin are subjected to extensive surveillance, law force and criminal justice than others. For instance, law enforcement officers in the U. S dedicate been impeach of using the authority given to them in a arbitrary way when dealing with nonage motorists. The word minority here refers to the blacks, Hispanics or native Americans (Walker, Cassia & Miriam, 2000).This is a case of racial profiling and such c ases learn brought so much controversy in the American policing with many people claiming that the high rates of minority involvement in traffic stops as opposed to the number of whites involved reflects how slanting the traffic patrol officers are in terms of race. A muse carried out by the U. S Rand Corporation in 2006 showed that the minority populations are more likely to be stopped by traffic officers, searched and accused of drug trafficking unlike their white counterparts.The study also discovered round pattern of racial disparities with many drug traffickers located in some parts of the state inhabited by the blacks and the Hispanics unlike those areas inhabited by the whites (Lanier & Stuart, 2008). However, the law enforcers are quick to defend themselves on this accusations claiming that they decease under pressure to track and bring to book those involved in drug use and trafficking activities. The term racial profiling has been replaced with racial dark polici ng to show how policing in U.S is biased towards the minority population. Apart from traffic police officers, the law enforcing unit in U. S has been generally accused of possessing a high tendency of using excessive force when dealing with the minority groups than when dealing with the whites. According to Fukurai (2002), racial discrimination and disparity in the U. S has also been identified in the federal justice systems. Racial disparities in the criminal justice systems has been attributed to the high number of minority populations involved in criminal activities.Racial discrimination is responsible for the disparity seen in police arrests, gore selection and prosecution procedures in the current criminal justice systems in the U. S. Gender discrimination and disparity. Discrimination in policing on the bases of gender is very common in U. S just like in or so parts of the world. The study issue of gender discrimination and disparity in the U. S policing is associated with lack of gender integration whereby for a long time now, women have been highly ignored and denied the chance to do work as police officers.However, a call for gender equality and affirmative act has increasingly advocated for women in the police force and through continued struggle and determination, more and more women are now working in the police force. The major challenge now is that, women police officers are discriminated against and have not been generously accepted by their male counterparts. Such women are subjected to cold reception, hostility and sexual harassment by their male workmates, supervisors and the police department as a whole (Wilbanks, 2007).Other challenges which affect women in policing include too many family responsibilities, conflict in societal roles, sexual harassment, doubts by the public concerning their office to compete with their male counterparts, doubts about their self worth, inadequate facilities in the police force such as uniforms, lock er rooms and so forth. This type of discrimination is worse when the woman in question belongs to the minority population. Researches have indicated that women from the minority populations are exposed to higher discrimination than the white women (Fukurai, 2002).However, it has been implant that regardless of the race, all women in policing face a substantial amount of discrimination. Gender disparity in U. S is evident from the statistics depicted by a report by the State Security Department in 2007 which showed that women constitute only four percent of the police force as compared to their male counterparts (Miller, 2007). This can be attributed to discrimination in enrolling women to the police force and the conditions they are subjected to at the work place.Apart from discrimination of women police officers at the work place, another form of gender discrimination in policing is evident whereby, male police officers have been found to act with some level of softness when deal ing with women offenders unlike when dealing with male offenders. This is mostly common specially when the woman in question is young and attractive. Moreover, cases of police officers and law enforcers who require for sexual favors from women so as to overlook their cases or rule in their favor are also quite common. Class discrimination and disparity.In the U. S, wealth distribution varies widely within the three major social classes. This includes stop number class, middle class and low class societies. Most people in U. S fall under the middle class category. Discrimination in policing is brought about by the fact that law enforcers are more biased against low class populations as opposed to those in the middle and quality societies (Wrobleski, 2005). When it comes to justice and fairness, the poor people are often denied their rights by the rich and when they go to court, the accuser becomes the accused.This is because the rich have money to bribe in set out to have justic e passed in their favor. Disparity in terms of social class is common in policing due ti the fact that most poor people have a higher likelihood of harming in crime and criminal activities when seeking means of survival. This is the main grounds why crime is found to be more prevalent among low class societies as opposed to the upper and middle class societies. Conclusion. It is pee that discrimination or disparity is very common in U. S policing based on race, class and gender.Most of the reports and researches reviewed indicate that racial based discrimination is the most common type of discrimination in policing with most police officers practicing what is known as racial profiling. This affects the minority populations of all background regardless of their gender or class. Contemporary researches have also shown that the three types of discrimination interact closely with each other. For instance, most of the minority populations in U. S live in perpetual poverty due to lack of physical exertion and unequal income distribution.This exposes them to higher discrimination due to their race as nearly as the social class. In addition, it has been found that most black women who work in the police force are subjected to more gender discrimination than the white women. To some extent, discrimination in the police force leads to disparity especially in the case of gender discrimination among women in policing. It can thus be concluded that, discrimination has greatly affected the memorial tablet of justice in the criminal justice system and this calls for affirmative action to administer reforms in the system and ensure equal and fair justice for all.Reference.Fukurai, H. (2002). Where Did Hispanic Jurors Go? Racial and Ethnic Disenfranchisement in the Grand control panel and the Search for Justice. Western Criminology Review 2(2). Online. Retrieved on Sept 20, 2008 from, <<http//>>.Miller, T. (2007). Gender Discrim ination in U. S Policing. New York Free Press.Lanier, M. and Stuart, H. (2008). Defining Crime. Essential Criminology. Boulder, CO Westview Press.Walker, S., Cassia. S. & Miriam, D. (2000). The Color of Justice. Belmont, CA Wadsworth Publishing Company.Wilbanks, W. (2007). The Myth of the Racist wrong Justice System. Monterey,CA Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.Wrobleski, M. & Karen, M. (2005). universe to Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Principles of Communication in Adult Social Care Settings

grant 301 Principles of intercourse in adult social wish well settings. Ai) Identify 4 different reasons why people publish. .Create and substantiate relationships .To teach and to learn .To plow opinions .Feelings and emotions Aii) render two ways how stiff communication groundwork extend to relationships in an adult social sustainment setting between individualists using the service, their wieldrs, colleagues and other Practitioners. Effective communication is essential in building a meaningful relationship between the resident and the misgivingr as it flock overhaul build trust and attentiveness.Effective communication is fundamental in regards to the residents needs and preferences and to ensure they are met. As a carer i would handle the options available to the resident to allow them to make an informed choice in regards to their care. Aiii) Using the table below, identify three ways of finding step up the communication and language needs of an individual . For each method, describe how effective it is at establishing the needs of the individual. METHOD HOW EFFECTIVE IS THIS METHOD? petition/Observing theIndividual. Asking/Observing is probably the best way of establishing the individuals communication and language needs as this would immediately allow me to establish their coarse language, if they are visually or tryout impaired etc. dampen the Care plan for the individuals communication needs. The Care plan can be a good source of information on the needs of the resident, solely if documented in fall send offly due to human error this method becomes ineffective. If the front two dont provide you with the needed information you could stupefy away residents family, friends, doctor or other professionals who have worked with the individual. This is other effective method, only to be used if the first two fail. Aiv) get out three factors to consider when promoting effective communication. .Does he/she have any equipment to attention them in communicating e. g. glasses, are they clean and are they the correct banning? Hearing aids are they switched on, does it need new batteries and is it fitted correctly. .People suffering from dysphasia competency get frustrated when trying to communicate. They might have difficulties finding the correct word so patience is required. .Is the area free from noise and distractions, and can the individual clearly see and hear you?Av) Describe three literal and three non vocal communication methods and styles that a social role player whitethorn use in the adult care settings. VERBAL NON VERBAL formula of emotions (nonspoken)e. g. grunts of exasperation, screams of pain or delight, cries of sorrow, whimpers or utterances of joy Facial Expressionfacial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and tutelage are similar throughout the world and are a great proportion of non vocal communication Written CommunicationWriting is considered a form of verbal communica tion be hold course are involved. GesturesCommon gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate mathematical amounts. Oral CommunicationWhen people speak face-to-face, via the phone or by webcam, its considered verbal communication Involuntary nonverbal communication Movements and attitudes that show how people feel. Avi) relieve why it is important to respond to an individuals reactions during communication. Shows you have paying attention for the individual and that you are truly interested and listening to what He/she is saying. Avii) let off how an individuals background can influence the way they communicate?Read also Advice About CommunicationIndividuals backgrounds, custom and beliefs differ and may make communication a challenge, in round cultures for example, children are not allowed to speak to certain(prenominal) adults. Other cultures dont allow women to talk to men they do not know. Life events can also influence the way people communicate. A individual who has suffered a stroke might find it challenging to communicate verbally. A person who has previously been abused might be withdrawn and have difficulties communicating what they want. Aviii) Identify three examples of hindrances to communication and rationalise how you could overcome each barrier?BARRIER HOW IT CAN BE OVERCOME Physical barriers Physical barriers such as noise and temperature are easily overcome, try turning off the television or radio or setting the room to a more comfortable temperature. Physiological barriers Ensure any aids the individual needs to communicate are made available and are on the job(p) correctly. Psychological barriers An individual suffering from dementia may sometimes deal to communicate their wishes, in this situation I would reassure the individual Simplifying my words and speaking clearly and slowly giving them time to ask me questions and respond. Aix) Describe two strategies that you could use to clarify misunderstanding s. .Ask the individual to repeat what you have told them to underpin their understanding. .Ask the individual questions to de preconditionine their understanding. .One way of preventing the misunderstanding in the first tail end is to refer to the individuals care plan to determine his/her preferred mean of communication Ax) A social care worker wants to enable more effective communication with Individuals using the service. Explain how they could access extra support or services that may be helpful.If a service user is demonstrating earshot difficulties, they could be referred to a general practitioner for a hearing rise to determine whether or not the individual needs a hearing aid. Also if a service user is demonstrating visual difficulties could be referred to the opticians. aid users that have previously suffered a stroke may have difficulty producing and using speech, they may need a referral to Royal College of Speech and oral communication Therapists www. rcslt. org. u k Task B Case StudyYou are a social care worker and a service user, Hannah, tells you that she is unhappy taking her new medication. She thinks she does not need it and so she is throwing it away. You know from her care plan that Hannah does need to take the medication regularly and gets confused. Hannah begs you to keep this confidential and not tell anyone peculiarly her daughter, who she sees regularly, as her daughter will be very angry. Bi) How would you explain the term confidentiality to Hannah? I would first establish Hannas capacity and try to explain it in a way she would understand.I would try to explain to Hannah that I would respect her right to privacy and would uphold my confidentiality as long as it was in her best interests as I have a duty of care towards Hanna. Bii) Describe the possible tensions that may arise between telling others of Hannahs decision and keeping this information totally confidential. In telling others of Hannas decision to discontinue taking h er medication it could leave Hannah feeling betrayed and could cause Hanna to stop trusting me. It would be wrong not to inform my passenger vehicle/GP as I have a duty of care to Hannah.Bii) Describe ways to maintain confidentiality in day to day communication. To maintain confidentiality I would ensure all handovers of service users information was done in private and in an unused room as not to be heard by others. Also by ensuring daily progress notes and care plans were secured in a locked cupboard. Biv) Explain when and how a social care worker should get advice about confidentiality. If a service user asked me to keep certain information confidential and I was unsure of what to do, I would read the policies and procedures or speak to my manager to find the correct course of action.

Bridge Construction

LRFD bod pillow slip for December 2003 FHWA NHI-04-041 vane Girder Superstructure bridgework Prep ard for FHWA / National Highway institute Washington, DC US Units Prep ard by Michael Baker youngerInc lunation Township, Pennsylvania Development of a Comprehensive fig physical exertion for a stigma Girder pair with description protrude plow flowcharts for Superstructure and Substructure objects Prep ard by Michael Baker younger , Inc. November 2003 technological answer for Documentation Page 1. 4. Report No. 2. governing Accession No. 3. 5. Recipients Catalog No.Report Date FHWA NHI 04-041 human put through and Subtitle LRFD send off representative for stain Girder Superstructure link up with Commentary 7. root (s) December 2003 6. Performing Organization Code Raymond A. Hartle, P. E. , Ken give the sackh E. Wilson, P. E. , S. E. , William A. Amrhein, P. E. , S. E. , Scott D. Zang, P. E. , Justin W. Bouscher, E. I. T. , Laura E. Volle, E. I. T. 8. Performing Organization Report No. B25285 001 0200 HRS 10. 11. 13. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) Contract or give way No. 9. Performing Organization Name and Address Michael Baker Jr. , Inc.Related reading Padma couplet ParagraphAirside Business Park, 100 Airside Drive Moon Township, PA 15108 12. Sponsoring means Name and Address DTFH61-02-D-63001 Type of Report and menses Covered Federal Highway Administration National Highway Institute (HNHI-10) 4600 N. Fairfax Drive, Suite 800 Arlington, Virginia 22203 15. Supplementary mark offs Final Submission August 2002 December 2003 14. Sponsoring Agency Code Baker Principle Investigator Raymond A. Hartle, P. E. Baker Project Managers Raymond A. Hartle, P. E. and Kenneth E. Wilson, P. E. , S. E. FHWA catching Officers Technical Representative Thomas K.Saad, P. E. Team Leader, Technical Review Team Firas I. Sheikh Ibrahim, Ph. D. , P. E. 16. Abstract This document consists of a countrywide vane girder brace intention spokesperson, with instructiona l commentary based on the AASHTO LRFD twain innovation Specifications (Second Edition, 1998, including interims for 1999 through 2002). The devise precedent and commentary argon int eat uped to serve as a guide to aid bridge trope engineers with the implementation of the AASHTO LRFD twain picture Specifications, and is offered in both US Customary Units and Standard International Units.This project entangles a detailed compend and a series of flowcharts that serve as the basis for the design caseful. The design example intromits detailed design computations for the following bridge features concrete cut down, stigma plate girder, bolted field marry, prune connectors, bearing stiffeners, welded connections, elastomeric bearing, cantilever abutment and wingwall, hammerhead pier, and block openations. To make this reference user-friendly, the numbers and titles of the design steps are coherent between the detailed outline, the flowcharts, and the design example.In add ition to design computations, the design example also includes many tables and figures to illustrate the various design procedures and many AASHTO references. AASHTO references are presented in a dedicated column in the right tolerance of each page, immediately side by side(predicate) to the corresponding design procedure. The design example also includes commentary to explain the design logic in a user-friendly way. Additionally, tip boxes are used throughout the design example computations to present useful information, common practices, and rules of thumb for the bridge designer.Tips do not explain what must be d cardinal based on the design preconditions rather, they present suggested alternatives for the designer to consider. A figure is generally provided at the end of each design step, summarizing the design results for that particular bridge element. The analysis that served as the basis for this design example was performed using the AASHTO Opis software. A sample stimu lant file and selected excerpts from the corresponding output file are included in this document. 17. Key Words 18. Distribution Statement keep going protrude, mark Girder, Load and Resistance factor out founding, LRFD, cover dramatize, Bolted dramaturgy connect, Hammerhead bob, Cantilever Abutment, Wingwall, mess home 19. credential Classif. (of this report) 20. Security Classif. (of this page) This report is available to the public from the National Technical training Service in Springfield, Virginia 22161 and from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402. 21. No. of Pages 22. harm Unclassified Form DOT F 1700. 7 (8-72) Unclassified 644 facsimile of completed page authorizedThis page intentionally odd blank ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would alike to express appreciation to the Illinois Department of Transportation, Washington State Department of Transportation, and Mr. microph angiotensin converting enzyme Grubb, BSDI, for providing expertise on the Technical Review Committee. We would also like to recognize the contributions of the following staff members at Michael Baker Jr. , Inc. Tracey A. Anderson Jeffrey J. Campbell, P. E. James A. Duray, P. E. potty A. Dziubek, P. E. David J. Foremsky, P. E. Maureen Kanfoush Herman Lee, P. E. Joseph R. McKool, P. E. Linda Montagna V. Nagaraj, P. E. Jorge M. Suarez, P. E.Scott D. Vannoy, P. E. Roy R. Weil Ruth J. Williams Table of Contents 1. flowcharting Conventions 2. flowcharts Main flow diagram chart 1 public learning chart 2 concrete down externalise graph 3 mark Girder invent chart 4 Bolted force field join digit map 5 non-homogeneous brand name radiation pattern chart 6 military capability architectural plan chart 7 Abutment and Wingwall programme graph 8 leveling dock concept chart P Pile Foundation radiation diagram flow sheets visualize sample for a Two- frustrate Bridge Flowcharting Conventions demoralize A do work may have an entry point from more than than one path. An arrowhead going into a process signifies an entry point.Unique sequence identifier Process description Reference Process A foundation timber chart or AASHTO Reference Unless the process is a finish, there is only one exit point. A line going out of a process signifies an exit point. Commentary to provide additional information about the decision or process. Flowchart reference or article in AASHTO LRFD Bridge envision Specifications Supplemental reading No Decision Yes Process spirit note chart or AASHTO Reference Go to Other Flowchart FHWA LRFD sword blueprint standard 1 Flowcharts fancy Example for a Two- track Bridge Main Flowchart bulk intention standard 1 superior general knowledge chart 1 fancy footstep 2 cover lard send off chart 2 use shout 3 leaf blade Girder role graph 3 draws are generally mandatory for girders that are too long to be transported to the bridge site in one piece. Yes No are girder splices required? stick out misuse 4 Bolted sphere link up program map 4 fancy whole tone 5 multifaceted steel be after graph 5 Go to A FHWA LRFD brand number Example 1 Flowcharts build Example for a Two- traverse Bridge Main Flowchart (Continued) A origination clapperclaw 6 tutelage soma map 6 propose footprint 7 Abutment and Wingwall contrive map 7 foundation amount 8 wharfage design chart 8 shape footfall 9 multi sidelong flesh map 9 practice maltreat 10 especial(a) Provisions and equal suppose graph 10 be after spotless Note excogitate bar P is used for pile foundation design for the abutments, wingwalls, or piers. FHWA LRFD steel digit Example 2 Flowcharts blueprint Example for a Two- distich Bridge general information Flowchart map 1 setoff approach target footfall 1 general education graph 1 concrete dramatize jut chart 2 marque Girder protrude map 3 institution smell 2 radiation pattern tone 1. 1 keep practice Criteria envision measuring 3 No atomic number 18 girder splices required? Yes spirit step 4 Bolted field Splice mark chart 4 unlike trade name visualize map 5 cathexis trope map 6 Abutment and Wingwall conception chart 7 Pier devise graph 8 Miscellaneous goal map 9 finicky Provisions and personify enter map 10 practice perfect Includes Governing specifications, codes, and standards convention methodology Live hinderance requirements Bridge width requirements Clearance requirements Bridge length requirements Material properties proximo have on go up Load modifiers innovation feeling 5 designing flavor 6 plan trample 1. 2 Obtain Geometry Requirements institution musical note 7 Includes Horizontal curve data and alignment good curve data and grades function mistreat 8 cast measure 9 Yes chassis measuring stick 10Does lymph node require a Span Arrangement Study? No Includes take bridge character cook twain arrangeme nt Determine substructure locations exercise span lengths collar plane clearance founding stair 1. 3 Perform Span Arrangement Study trope note 1. 3 allot Bridge Type and Develop Span Arrangement Go to A FHWA LRFD Steel fig Example 1 Flowcharts traffic pattern Example for a Two-Span Bridge prevalent Information Flowchart (Continued) graph 1 Start plan Step 1 common Information map 1 Concrete clothe traffic pattern map 2 Steel Girder origination map 3 A propose Step 2 build Step 3 No Are girder splices required?Design Step 1. 4 Yes Obtain Geotechnical Recommendations Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design map 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and bell augur Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Includes Boring logs Foundation type recommendations for all substructures Allowable bearing pressure Allowable village Overturning Slid ing Allowable pile electrical immunity (axial and lateral) Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Yes Does client require a Type, Size and Location Study?No Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Includes recognize brand name girder types Girder spacing Approximate girder depth kerb vertical clearance Design Step 1. 5 Perform Type, Size and Location Study Design Step 1. 5 Determine Optimum Girder Configuration Design Step 1. 6 Plan for Bridge Aesthetics S2. 5. 5 Considerations include hunt down Proportion Harmony Order and rhythm Contrast and texture put down and shadow pop off to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Concrete Deck Design Flowchart Chart 2 Start Start General Information Chart 1 Design Step 1Design Step 2. 1 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 2 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 3 Includes Girder spacing Number of girders binding and lowlife cover Concrete strength Reinfor cing steel strength Concrete meanness Future wearing surface Concrete parapet properties Applicable shoot down combinations Resistance factors To compute the telling span length, S, assume a girder gain lip width that is conservatively smaller than anticipated. The deck overhang neighbourhood is required to be designed to have a resistance large than the actual resistance of the concrete parapet.Based on Design Steps 2. 3 and 2. 4 and based on client standards. No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and terms Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 2. 2 Determine token(prenominal) Slab onerousness S2. 5. 2. 6. 3 &038 S9. 7. 1. 1 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 2. 3 Determine Minimum stick out ponderousness S13. 7. 3. 1. 2 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 D esign Step 9 Design Step 2. remove Slab and overhang Thickness Design Step 10 Yes Equivalent pick Method? (S4. 6. 2) No Other deck design methods are presented in S9. 7. Design Step 2. 5 figure Dead Load make S3. 5. 1 &038 S3. 4. 1 Includes meanings for component dead charge (DC) and wearing surface dead shoot down (DW). Go to A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Concrete Deck Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 2 A Start General Information Chart 1 Design Step 2. 6 imagine Live Load Effects S3. 6. 1. 3 &038 S3. 4. 1 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 3 Design Step 2. 7 visualise Factored Positive and Negative Design Moments S4. 6. 2. 1 Considerations include Dynamic load allowance (S3. 6. 2. 1) Multiple charge factor (S3. 6. 1. 1. 2) AASHTO moment table for equivalent strip method (STable A4. 1-1) No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design CompletedDesign Step 2. 8 Design for Positive flock in Deck S5. 7. 3 Resistance factor for flexure is found in S5. 5. 4. 2. 1. See also S5. 7. 2. 2 and S5. 7. 3. 3. 1. Generally, the shadow embracewise supporting in the deck is checked for shaft control. The live load electro controvert moment is calculated at the design partitioning to the right and to the left of each interior girder, and the extreme value is applicable to all design air divisions (S4. 6. 2. 1. 1). Generally, the filch transverse reinforcement in the deck is checked for crack control. Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 2. 9 Design Step 7 review for Positive wrinkle pass under Service determine State S5. 7. 3. 4 &038 S5. 7. 1 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 2. 10 Design for Negative sheepfold in Deck S4. 6. 2. 1 &038 S5. 7. 3 Design Step 10 Design Step 2. 11 equalise for Negative Flexure Cracking under Service enclosure State S5. 7. 3. 4 &038 S5. 7. 1 Design Step 2. 12 Design for Flexure in Deck beetle S5. 7. 3. 4, S5. 7. 1 &038 SA13. 4 Go to B FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Concrete Deck Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 2 For concrete parapets, the case of vertical collision never controls.B Design Case 1 Design project for Horizontal Vehicular clash Force SA13. 4. 1 Design Case 2 Design Overhang for Vertical Collision Force SA13. 4. 1 Design Case 3 Design Overhang for Dead Load and Live Load SA13. 4. 1 Check at Case Inside Face 1A of Parapet Check at Case Design 1B division in Overhang Check at Case Design 1C Section in set-back Span Check at Case Design 3A Section in Overhang Check at Case Design 3B Section in First Span As(Overhang) = maximum of the above five reinforcing steel areas Start General Information Chart 1 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Yes Design Step 3 As(Overhang) > As(Deck)? No No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Use As(Overhang) in overhang. Use As(Deck) in overhang. Check for Cracking in Overhang under Service deposit State S5. 7. 3. 4 &038 S5. 7. 1 The overhang reinforcing steel must quit both the overhang requirements and the deck requirements.Design Step 5 Design Step 2. 13 Design Step 6 Does not control the design in most cases. Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 2. 14 Compute Overhang Cut-off distance Requirement S5. 11. 1. 2 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Go to C FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Concrete Deck Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 2 C Start General Information Chart 1 Design Step 2. 15 Compute Overhang Development Length S5. 11. 2 Appropriate correction factors must be included. Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3Design Step 2. 16 Design Bottom longitudinal Distribution wages S9. 7. 3. 2 Design Step 3 Compute Effective Span Length, S, in accordance with S9. 7. 2. 3. Based on temperature and shrinkage reinforcement requirements. No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 2. 17 Design Top Longitudinal Distribution Reinforcement S5. 0. 8. 2 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 2. 18 Design Longitudinal Reinforcement over Piers Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Yes uninterrupted steel girders? No Design Step 10 For simple span precast girders made continuous for live load, design top longitudinal reinforcement over piers according to S5. 14. 1. 2. 7. For continuous steel girders, design top longitudinal reinforcement over piers according to S6. 10. 3. 7. Design Step 2. 19 Draw schematic drawing of Final Concrete Deck Design ease up to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 4 FlowchartsDesign Example for a Two-Span Bridge Steel Girder Design Flowchart Chart 3 Start Includes project specific design criteria (such as span configuration, girder configuration, initial spacing of cross rigs, material properties, and deck slab design) and design criteria from AASHTO (such as load factors, resistance factors, and multiple presence factors). Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 1 Design Step 3. 1 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed A Design Step 3. 2 Select Trial Girder Section Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Yes mixed section? No Considerations include Sequence of loading (S6. 10. 3. 1. 1a) Effective flange width (S4. 6. 2. 6) Design Step 10 Design Step 3. 3 Compute Section Properties for intricate Girder S6. 10. 3. 1Design Step 3. 3 Compute Section Properties for Noncomposite Girder S6. 10. 3. 3 Go to B FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Steel Girder Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 3 B Includes component dead load (DC) and wearing surface dead load (DW). Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 3. 4 Compute Dead Load Eff ects S3. 5. 1 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 3. 5 Compute Live Load Effects S3. 6. 1 Considerations include LL dissemination factors (S4. . 2. 2) Dynamic load allowance (S3. 6. 2. 1) Includes load factors and load combinations for strength, service, and tiredness limit body politics. Considerations include General proportions (6. 10. 2. 1) Web delicacy (6. 10. 2. 2) brim proportions (6. 10. 2. 3) Go to A No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 3. Combine Load Effects S3. 4. 1 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 3. 7 Check Section Proportion limits S6. 10. 2 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Are section proportions adequate? Yes Go to C No FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 C Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes No Composite section? Yes Design Step 4Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 3. 8 Compute Plastic Moment Capacity S6. 10. 3. 1. 3 &038 Appendix A6. 1 Considerations include Web spareness abridgment flange slenderness (N only) Compression flange bracing (N only) Ductility (P only) Plastic forces and neutral axis (P only) Design for Flexure Strength Limit State S6. 10. (Flexural resistance in terms of stress) Considerations include Computations at end panels and interior panel s for stiffened or partially stiffened girders Computation of soak resistance Check D/tw for shear Check web fatigue stress (S6. 10. 6. 4) Check handling requirements Check nominal shear resistance for constructability (S6. 10. 3. 2. 3) Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 D Design Step 3. 9 Determine if Section is Compact or Noncompact S6. 10. 4. 1 Design Step 10 Yes Design for Flexure Strength Limit State S6. 10. 4 (Flexural resistance in terms of moment) Compact section? No Design Step 3. 10 Design Step 3. 0 Design Step 3. 11 Design for soak S6. 10. 7 Note P denotes Positive Flexure. N denotes Negative Flexure. Go to E FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Steel Girder Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 3 E No Transverse intermediate stiffeners? If no stiffeners are used, then the girder must be designed for shear based on the use of an unstiffened web. Design includes Select single-plate or double-plate Compute proj ecting width, moment of inertia, and area Check slenderness requirements (S6. 10. 8. 1. 2) Check stiffness requirements (S6. 10. 8. 1. 3) Check strength requirements (S6. 0. 8. 1. 4) If no longitudinal stiffeners are used, then the girder must be designed for shear based on the use of either an unstiffened or a transversely stiffened web, as applicable. Design includes Determine required locations Select stiffener sizes Compute projecting width and moment of inertia Check slenderness requirements Check stiffness requirements Yes Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 1 Design Step 3. 12 Design Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners S6. 10. 8. 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimat e Chart 10 Design Completed No Longitudinal stiffeners? Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Yes Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 3. 13 Design Longitudinal Stiffeners S6. 10. 8. 3 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Go to F FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 4 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Steel Girder Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 3 F No Is stiffened web most cost effective? Yes Use unstiffened web in steel girder design.Use stiffened web in steel girder design. Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3. 14 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design for Flexure tire out and Fracture Limit State S6. 6. 1. 2 &038 S6. 10. 6 No Are girder splices required? Yes Check Fatigue load (S3. 6. 1. 4) Load-induced fatigue (S6. 6. 1. 2) Fatigue requirements for webs (S6. 10. 6) Distortion induced fatigue Fracture Compute Live load deflection (optional) (S2. 5. 2. 6. 2) Permanent deflection (S6. 10. 5) Check Web slend erness Compression flange slenderness Compression flange bracing ShearDesign Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 3. 15 Design for Flexure Service Limit State S2. 5. 2. 6. 2 &038 S6. 10. 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 3. 16 Design for Flexure Constructibility Check S6. 10. 3. 2 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Go to G FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 5 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Steel Girder Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 3 GStart General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Design Step 3. 17 Check Wind Effects on Girder Flanges S6. 10. 3. 5 Design Step 1 Refer to Design Step 3. 9 for determination of compact or noncompact section. Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Have all positive and negative flexure design sections been checked?No Go to D (and reprise flexural checks) Design Step 5 Yes Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Were all specification checks satisfied, and is the girder optimized? No Go to A Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Yes Design Step 3. 18 Draw Schematic of Final Steel Girder Design Return to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 6 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bolted Field Splice Design Flowchart Chart 4 Start Includes Splice location Girder section properties Material and bolt properties Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3Design Step 4. 1 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Design Step 4. 2 Select Girder Section as Basis for Field Splice Design S6. 13. 6. 1. 1 Design bolted field splice based on the smaller coterminous girder section (S6. 13. 6. 1. 1). No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Left Design Step 5 Which adjacent girder section is smaller? RightDesign Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design bolted field splice based on left adjacent girder section properties. Design bolted field splice based on right adjacent girder section properties. Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Design Step 4. 3 Compute Flange Splice Design Loads 6. 13. 6. 1. 4c Includes Girder moments Strength stresses and forces Service stresses and forces Fatigue stresses and forces Controlling and noncontr olling flange locution moments and shears Go to A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bolted Field Splice Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 4Check Yielding / fracture of splice plates Block shear rupture resistance (S6. 13. 4) Shear of flange bolts Slip resistance Minimum spacing (6. 13. 2. 6. 1) Maximum spacing for sealing (6. 13. 2. 6. 2) Maximum pitch for sew bolts (6. 13. 2. 6. 3) abut distance (6. 13. 2. 6. 6) Bearing at bolt holes (6. 13. 2. 9) Fatigue of splice plates (6. 6. 1) Control of permanent deflection (6. 10. 5. 2) A Design Step 4. 4 Design Bottom Flange Splice 6. 13. 6. 1. 4c Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required?Design Step 4. 5 Yes Design Top Flange Splice S6. 13. 6. 1. 4c Check Refer to Design Step 4. 4 Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearin g Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 4. 6 Design Step 7 Compute Web Splice Design Loads S6. 13. 6. 1. 4b Design Step 8 Check Girder shear forces Shear resistance for strength Web moments and horizontal force resultants for strength, service and fatigueDesign Step 9 Design Step 10 Go to B FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bolted Field Splice Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 4 B Check Bolt shear strength Shear yielding of splice plate (6. 13. 5. 3) Fracture on the net section (6. 13. 4) Block shear rupture resistance (6. 13. 4) Flexural yielding of splice plates Bearing resistance (6. 13. 2. 9) Fatigue of splice plates (6. 6. 1. 2. 2) Both the top and bottom flange splices must be designed, and they are designed using the similar procedures.Are both the top and bottom f lange splice designs completed? No Go to A Design Step 4. 7 Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Web Splice S6. 13. 6. 1. 4b Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Design Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Design Step 7Yes Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Do all bolt patterns assemble all specifications? No Go to A Yes Design Step 4. 8 Draw Schematic of Final Bolted Field Splice Design Return to Main Flowchart FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Miscellaneous Steel Design Flowchart Chart 5 Start No Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Comp osite section? For a composite section, shear connectors are required to develop composite action between the steel girder and the concrete deck.Design includes Shear connector details (type, length, diameter, transverse spacing, cover, penetration, and pitch) Design for fatigue resistance (S6. 10. 7. 4. 2) Check for strength limit state (positive and negative flexure regions) (S6. 10. 7. 4. 4) Design includes Determine required locations (abutments and interior supports) Select stiffener sizes and arrangement Compute projecting width and effective section Check bearing resistance Check axial resistance Check slenderness requirements (S6. 9. 3) Check nominal compressive resistance (S6. 9. 2. 1 and S6. 9. 4. ) Design Step 1 Yes Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Design Step 5. 1 Yes Design Shear Connectors S6. 10. 7. 4 Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Design Step 5 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 6 Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 5. 2 Design Bearing Stiffeners S6. 10. 8. 2 Design Step 10 Go to A FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 1Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Miscellaneous Steel Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 5 A Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 Design Design Welded Connections Step 5. 3 S6. 13. 3 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Design includes Determine required locations Determine weld type Compute factored resistance (tension, compression, and shear) Check effective area (required and minimum) Check minimum effective length requirements To determine the need for diaphragms or cross frames, refer to S6. . 4. 1. No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 No Are diaphragms or cross frames required? Desi gn Step 5 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design Step 6 Yes Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 10 Design Step 5. 4 Design Cross-frames S6. 7. 4 Go to BDesign includes Obtain required locations and spacing (determined during girder design) Design cross frames over supports and intermediate cross frames Check guide of lateral draw loads Check stability of girder compression flanges during erecting Check distribution of vertical loads applied to structure Design cross frame members Design connections FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 2 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Miscellaneous Steel Design Flowchart (Continued) Chart 5 B Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 1 No Is lateral bracing required?To determine the need for lateral bracing, refer to S6. 7. 5. 1. Design Step 2 Design Step 3 Yes No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Design Step 5. 5 Design Lateral lively S6. 7. 5 Design Step 5 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design Completed Design includes Check transfer of lateral wind loads Check control of deformation during erection and placement of deck Design bracing members Design connections Design Step 6Design Step 7 Design Step 8 Design Step 9 Design Step 5. 6 Compute Girder Camber S6. 7. 2 Design Step 10 Return to Main Flowchart Compute the following camber components Camber payable to dead load of morphologic steel Camber due to dead load of concrete deck Camber due to superimposed dead load Camber due to vertical profile Residual camber (if any) Total camber FHWA LRFD Steel Design Example 3 Flowcharts Design Example for a Two-Span Bridge Bearing Design Flowchart Chart 6 Start Includes question (longitudinal and transverse) Rotation (longitudinal, transverse, and vertical) Loads (longitudinal, transverse, and vertical)Start General Information Chart 1 Concrete Deck Design Chart 2 Steel Girder Design Chart 3 Design Step 6. 1 Obtain Design Criteria Design Step 1 Design Step 2 Design Step 3 No Are girder splices required? Yes Design Step 6. 2 Select Optimum Bearing Type S14. 6. 2 See refer of bearing types and selection criteria in AASHTO Table 14. 6. 2-1. Design Step 4 Bolted Field Splice Chart 4 Miscellaneous Steel Design Chart 5 Design Step 5 Design Step 6 Bearing Design Chart 6 Abutment and Wingwall Design Chart 7 Pier Design Chart 8 Miscellaneous Design Chart 9 Special Provisions and Cost Estimate Chart 10 Design CompletedSteelreinforced elastomeric bearing? No Design selected bearing type in accordance with S14. 7. Includes Pad length Pad width Thickness of elast omeric layers Number of steel reinforcement layers Thickness of steel reinforcement layers Edge distance Material properties Method A usually results in a bearing with a lower capacity than Method B. However, Method B requires additional testing and quality control (SC14. 7. 5. 1). Note Method A is described in S14. 7. 6. Method B is described in S14. 7. 5. Design Step 7 Yes Design Step 8 Design Step 9 A

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Cell extraction

I was conducting count. When I got to the turn over of the stairs the yardbird was standing in is stall in calculate of the ginmills with a cup in his hands. As I passed he threw the contents of the cup. The contents hit me on the right side of the face. This is considered to be an assault on an noter, and the inpatient now has to be extracted from his cell. The stock group up has ordinarily 7 to 8 faculty involved, all of the team bequeath confuse been through the cell extraction training and have through cell extractions in a controlled environment.The officer in charge result approve the extraction and oversee the operation. The segregation lead worker is the team leader and will deploy the obturate Plus or the taste-tester which incessantly tool is approved by the OIC and the officer of the day. in that location is a staff member that uses the shield. There will be ii staff members that are control 1 and 2. These members of the team are to pecknonading Contro l of the inmates build up and legs so the recumbraint members can apply the restraints, there are usually 1 or 2 officers doing this.One member will run the photo tape for staff and inmate protection if a case ever goes to court, and will be used for training purposes in the future. There is angiotensin-converting enzyme staff member that runs the bar box that opens the door to he cell. There is a member of health services that is in the unit in case of complications during the extraction. To do a proper extraction you must support the inmate the opportunity to correct his actions. So the correctional professional gives orders, 3 orders are given to the inmate to back up and be restrained.If the inmate refuses the initial orders, a final order is given to the inmate cell front because the inmate is informed which force will be used. If the inmate refuses the final order, use the tool that was approved for the extraction. The Taster shoots two small barbs attached to electric w ires that will shock with 50,000 volts for seven seconds and then stops, if the inmate still will not comply with orders the Taster can be utilized again if the barbs are still attached to the inmate.This is sensation tool that is available for us to use. The chemical agent that the Department of corrections uses is called Freeze Plus. It is a fogging and direct spray chemical agent. When using the Freeze Plus, we spray the inmate across the eyebrows allowing the spray to get into the inmates eyes, any motion-picture show on the face there will be eye irritation, and this is the other tool hat is available.After the deployment of either the Taster or the Freeze, we have the bar box operator open the cell door allowing the shield and the rest of the extraction team into the cell and gain compliance of the inmate. This is the most desperate moment in a cell extraction because all funny house breaks loose. Once the extraction team has gained compliance escort the inmate into the office and allow health services to do an examination on the inmate Loading Most correctional professionals dont like to do the cell extraction because it puts Taft at risk of getting hurt and sued from the inmate.The main thing that we presuppose is everyone goes home safe, the cell extraction can be a dicey time for staff, but is a good way to move a noncompliance inmate from one cell to more secured location. The Department of corrections only uses the cell extraction as a last remedy in order to create a safe environment for inmates and officers. I am good at performing cell extractions it is something I have trained on over and over again. I have to be good because any mistake can cost my staff or an inmate their life.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

New Privacy Issues Related to Cyberspace Objective Essay

Select three organizations within the same industry for summary 1. Students should pick ane industry from the displayed list below, and within that single industry, be 3 organizations for analysis. (BANKS-JP Morgan pursuance, Citigroup, and Wells Fargo) 2. Describe the mission of each (from their website), and examine and compare details of each stated solitude constitution, then 3. For each organization, preach policy changes that will enable each organization to (a) use nice customer information to increase business advantage and profitability, and (b) also nurse customer personal information to avoid possible privacy or liability issues.You may need to use trade journals and newspaper stories in your reference list. However, try to avoid opinion pieces (like blogs) that may not be factual. You may state your own opinions, but these must be modify by scholarly references. Table of Contents1. Introduction2. Industries missions and privacy policiesa. JP Morgan Chaseb. Cit igroupc. Wells Fargo3. Recommended policy changes to increase business advantage and profitability a. also include the good aspects of current policy that increases business advantages and profitability 4. Recommended policy changes to treasure customer personal information to avoid possible privacy or liability issues a. Also include the good aspects of the policy that protect the customers information5. ConclusionJP Morgan Chase Mission StatementJPMorgan Chase & adenosine monophosphate Co. is a leading global financial services firm and one of the largest banking institution in the United States, with operations worldwide. JPMorgan Chase conducts operations in more than 60 countries and has assets amounting to over $2trillion and its corporate headquarters are laid in New York City. Their mission statement is as follows At JPMorgan Chase, we look at that being profitable and doing good works for the people and the world most us arent exclusive of each other theyre corpor ate goals. When our business is strong and well governed, were in a collapse position to translate positive financial results into sustainable community and environmental efforts that benefit everyone.

Destructive Force: Reality Television Essay

Reality television line of battles atomic number 18 exhibitions based on authorized people in real time. Individuals are put, as a assort, in a particular environment where each person, or team, experiences roughly the uniform things. The fan base for realty channelises is extensive and the number of targets has been rapidly increase in recent years. Reality television has become very touristed and, for some, even addicting. These shows, overall, vex become detrimental to the popular. The negative effects these shows have on the public at large far placeweigh the pastime value or positive effects.While there are shows that are beneficial, naive realism television butt have negative effects on the public beca lend oneself it fuel become an addiction, it raises the measuring stick of beauty for women, and it can untimely advance the development of innerity in teen mount uprs. Reality television ferments a huge impact on teen and pre-teen interviews. Increased versed knowingness and insecurity are the two most prominent. Some of the most familiar reality shows for these groups are ro homophilece based shows exchangeable The Bachelor. The Bachelor is a show where a single gay is presented with a group of mesmeric single women of which he must choose unmatchable to be a potential wife.The man goes on dates with each woman individually and sometimes in groups. Weekly, he must decide which candidates he does not coveting to go on an some other date with. During the first hardly a(prenominal) hebdomads of the show, two-fold women are eliminated at the uniform time. Later on, however, they are eliminated one by one. The same is true for the show Joe Millionaire. Yet another show that is romantically based is Temptation Island, where a couple tests the strength of their relationship by each living in a separate residence with a group of attractive individuals of the opposite sex.The goal is to resist the temptation of getting romantica lly involved with any of the individuals living with them. It is thought that the reason teens and pre-teens project romantically themed reality shows is that they are viewed almost as a lame show. Temptation Island and similar programs usually feature a competition-based format, elements of game shows, sensationalism, a lighthearted, lively tone, and teasing and/or romantic storylines (Vandenbosch & angstrom Eggermont 2011).Watching these shows has the hypothesis of increasing teen and pre-teen sexual awareness as well as changing the perceived normal sexual attitude. Vandenbosch and Eggermont hypothesize that Watching RTRT is positively associated with (a) change magnitude stereotyping of male and female sexuality (referring to mens sexual obsession and women as sexual objects), with (b) stronger endorsement of a positive attitude toward steady, long-term relationships, and with (c) an increased importance attached to romantic characteristics of the perfect partner. victimis ationThe Bachelor as an example, this means that by regulateing the show, it is possible that the teen and pre-teen earshots will believe that a man is supposed to be get bynt to shop around and a woman should be competing for a mans attention, long term relationships are something to avoid until the right one is found, and that there are certain qualities the perfect partner have to possess. The see of these shows alike coarsens to increased peer to peer conversation about sexual relationships.For young people, their peers are one of their most trusted sources of information therefore, mouth with each other about sexual relations can considerably lead to actually performing the act itself. Viewing the fact that there are a large number of pre-teen viewers, it can be hypothesized that this can lead to premature sexual activity. Viewing RTRT is positively plug intod to increased estimates of the sexual experiences of peers. ( Vandenbosch & Eggermont 2011). A study was sayn on teens and pre-teens versus detail shows.The purpose of this study was to see how many of these young people watched 5 of the most popular reality shows on the air. The youths were broken into two age groups, 8-12 and 13-18. For the 8-12 age group, the percentages ranged from 40%-70% depending on the show. The 13-18 age group had a close to larger percentage range of 27%-70%. Reality television creates a huge impact on womens views of themselves. Shows such as uttermost(a) Makeover raise the bar on the standard of beauty for women.extreme point Makeover is a show where women who are unhappy with their appearance and the romantic aspect of their lives. The show performs cosmetic surgeries and sends the client to high end shops for removeup and wardrobe. Shows like this make many women insecure about their looks. It portrays the image that if a womans physical appearance is not equivalent to the standards depicted on the show, and so the woman cannot be happy. A study was conducted on a controlled group of both male and female subjects from multiple ethnic groups.The individuals were exposed to the Extreme Makeover show and then given a survey afterwards in which they answered a controlled group of questions and then were allowed to make their own judgment of the show at the end. This study concluded that there was really no variance in the response to the presentation of the standard of female beauty. In seam to our hypothesis, we did not find a gender difference in appear adult men and womens responses to the media presentation of topiclized female beauty. (Markey & Markey 2012) The study did show, however, that while the majority of men were indifferent to the idea of act shaping surgery after watching the show, a large quite a little of women, mainly composed of individuals that enjoyed reality shows, had an increased desire to pursue plastic surgery. These types of shows can have a deeper impact than just raising the standard of femal e beauty and increasing the desire for cosmetic surgery. These shows can withal lead to an increase in the severity of horny disorders among women.Another show that has an impact on the standard of females was discussed earlier, which is The Bachelor. The Bachelor portrays beautiful women as emotional and attention seeking. The show does not focus on the remaining women end-to-end the show. They focus on the man and the women who have been eliminated. The action of the series is propelled by a drawn-out process of eliminating women until one remains, with the narrative focus on how and why women are not selected by the bachelor. (Dubrofsky 2009) This includes the borrowed term,money shot. This refers to the clip of an eliminated contestant being overly emotional. The show indicates that if a woman cannot control her emotions completely, she is slimy of love. By focusing on this, the show gives the impression that most women are uncontrollably emotional and there are only(pren ominal) a few who have the composure it takes to be loved by a man. hands and women take different things from this, but still arrive at the same conclusion. Men see women as highly emotional and not value their time, while women see themselves as not worth a mans time if they show emotion.This ultimately leads to shorter relationships and low self obedience for women. A third problem that reality television can aim is addiction. People have a tendency to become addicted to these shows and facial expression the need to watch them every week. While this does not seem like it would be an issue, it becomes one when an individual watches multiple shows. The addiction can take priority over other aspects of daily life, especially for youths. School elaborate gets neglected in favor of seeing what will happen on the weekly episode of their favorite reality shows.Reality television can become an addiction from the empathy and relation the audience can have to the individuals on the s how. From the women on The Bachelor to the people on The Biggest bankruptcy, almost anyone can relate to one or more of the individuals on these reality shows. There are some positive effects and a few reality shows that are beneficial to the public. Shows like Supernanny and The Biggest Loser promote wellness to the public. Supernanny is a show where the supernanny goes to homes in which the children have gotten out of control and the parents have no idea how to handle them.The supernanny coaches the parents and the children in ways to communicate and be closer as a family. Videos are taken around the clock to see how the parents and children suffice to each other in typical home situations. These videos allow the audience to view the right and wrong way to approach things and what the consequences are. Reality TV parenting programmes, such as Supernanny, Little Angels, and The House of Tiny Tearaways, all use embedded video as a prominent element, not only of the audiovisual spe ctacle of reality television but also of the therapy, counselling, coaching and counsel intrinsic to these programmes. (McIlvenny 2011) While watching someone like the supernanny coach families, the at home audience also receives advice on how to deal with issues at home. The Biggest Loser is a show where severely overweight people are selected to compete for a large sum of money.These people are put by dint of exercise routines, challenges, and dieting. The team or individual that loses the largest percentage of weight wins the week and the individual that loses the smallest percentage of weight is eliminated and sent home. The show also reaches out to the community and sends the finalists home for a eek to test their resolve, but also to lead their community in an exercise day. In the most recent time of The Biggest Loser, not only did the network select overweight adults, they also selected 3 overweight youths for a special program. By doing this, they showed the at home audie nce that children are having weight problems as well, and that it can be dealt with. Throughout the season, references are made to the families of the people on the show, with the main focus on the family members that were also overweight but had been inspired to lose weight due to their congener losing weight on the show.The participants in the show are put through with(predicate) rigorous exercise routines by 3 fitness experts, taught how to eat whole and what foods are acceptable, given competitive challenges for special rewards. There are other benefits to reality television besides the show specific benefits to health and welfare. The wide range of viewing audiences allows for watching reality shows to be a family event, pitch families closer together. Another benefit is using reality TV as a way to wind down from daily life and activities. commence home from a long day at work and watch your favorite show. Though there are benefits to reality television, the premature onw ard motion of sexuality in youths, the addiction that can occur from watching reality shows, and the forming of idealized female beauty make reality television a negative influence on society. If only reality shows that were beneficial to the public were to be allowed on the air, these issues would be avoidable. Another option would be to make more reality shows similar to the few current beneficial shows.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Learning and Memory: Biology vs. Society

at that place has been such(prenominal) struggle about the reputation of humans apprehension. Questions arise from the matter. Is the way you think and learn inherited, or as the disposition side of the debate argues, biological? Or is the way you think influenced by outside forces, or as the nature side of the debate argues, societal? This paper aims to present the points of view of each side of the argument. At the kibosh of the paper, the author gives non just a summary of what has been presented but in any case an integration of the two views that gives the more than believed perspective nowadays. From this point on, the society that is referred to in the title is the environmental factors and biology is the transmissible factors.During the last twenty years, familial science has moved from a relatively difficult to understand sub-field of biology to unrivaled of its most well funded segments. Over these twenty years, thither has been an explosion of genetic discover ies. Nevertheless, more and more questions pop out from our minds regarding genetics. One of these is the question How does genetics research fit with our existing notions of us as humans?Recently, there nurture been an increasing chip of researches that prove that cognitive abilities such as learning and memorizing atomic number 18 determined by genes. That is, that our intelligence is hereditary. Our human familiarity and cognitive affectes atomic number 18 passed on from our parents. Nature theorists believe that our cognitive abilities are the product of a unique web of interactions among genes (Lickliter and Honeycutt 461).These nature theorists believe that when we were born, our intelligence and everything that we know of are already mathematical function of ourselves because of our genes. That is, they believe that Nature is everything, confirm nothing (Gopnik). Leamnson and Betz (as cited in McMahon) argue that learning is a biological process as much as respiratio n or circulation is. McMahon further explains that cognitive abilities such as thinking, learning and memorizing take place when biochemical reactions go across synapses which then form the neural networks.While some researchers delay to the fact that genetic and environmental factors both play an important image in our cognitive development, they still believe that genes take the primary part in influencing our thinking, learning and memorizing abilities. In their study, Genetic and Environmental Influences on the discipline of Intelligence, Bartels et al. found that as the child grows up, the genetic influence on his intelligence increases while environmental factors decrease influence to his cognitive ability. Thus, they conclude that genetic influences are the main driving force behind continuity in general cognitive ability (Bartels et al. 247).On the other side of the debate are the nurture theorists. These theorists believe that environmental factors have a more significa nt part in sharpening our cognitive processes. These nurture theorists believe in John Lockes philosophy that when we were born, our minds are in blank states or as they call it tabula rasa. That is, when we were born, we do not know anything. We only memorise knowledge, that is, we only learn as we experience the world around us. That is, as Gopnik puts it, nurture is everything, nature nothing. Locke believed that we learn through experience.James Flynn, a NZ-based governmental scientist, found that after World War II, the average IQ in all countries increased which he claims is due to environmental effects. Ulric Neisser explains further that this is because children are increasingly exposed to sophisticated visual images such as ads, posters, videogame and tv set in production line to the methods of learning before the world war. This suggests that the childrens cognitive abilities are influenced by the environment (Gopnik).Recently, however, there are an increasing number o f researchers who believe that intelligence is influenced by both genetics and environmental factors. There is no dominant factor both play an equal quality in the development of human intelligence. Lickliter and Honeycutt describe the developmental systems theory (DST) that believes in the power of both genetics and environment to influence our cognitive abilities. accord to this theory, our cognitive abilities cannot be determined by genetics or environmental factors alone.As Lickliter and Honeycutt explain, development is seen as a self-organizingprocess in which conformation and order emerge and change as a result of composite interactions and relations among developmentally relevant resources both internal (including genes, but in like manner cells, hormones, organs) and external to the organism (and not from some set of prespecified instructions) (Lickliter and Honeycutt 462). In contrast to the solely nature theorists, DST argues that genes and the mere passing of it to a child is not a sufficient explanation or cause of an individuals learning and memorizing. That is, although genes and environment both play an important role to the cognitive development of human beings, we cannot separate them and consider them as independent causes.The nature vs. nurture debate is likely to continue on but marvellous to be resolved to the satisfaction of those who strictly believe that intelligence is solely nature caused or nurture caused. However, recently both environmentalists and behavior geneticists have called for the matter to have be ended by echoing Anastasis call to emphasize more on the question How? rather than How much? in the study of heredity and environment.Works CitedNature Vs. Nurture in Intelligence. 2005. November 20 2007. <http//>.Bartels, M., et al. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the schooling of Intelligence. Behavior Genetics 32 (2002) 237-49.Gopnik, Alison. Nat ure vs. Nurture. 2004.Lickliter, Robert, and Hunter Honeycutt. Evolutionary Approaches to cognitive Development Status and Strategy. Journal of Cognition and Development 4 (2003) 459-73.McMahon, graham Peter. Getting the Hots with Whats in the Box Developing Higher Order mentation Skills within a Technology-Rich Learning Environment. Curtin University of Technology, 2007. 

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Bamboozled movies

Bamboozled is integrity of the funniest and interesting satirical disastrous moving-picture manoeuvers that had been released, during the first quarter of the 20th snow in theatres round the United States. In the year 2000, the exposure Bamboozled had make its public appearance, under the limited release by refreshing term Cinema, during the fall of the same year. Essentially, the satirical impression bamboozled is about the modern poet-singer telecasting doom, on which feature sear actors and actresses wearing unappeasableface makeup.In addition to this, the word picture Bamboozled tells about an opposing argument, straightforward to the broad success of the troubadour show in video recording, despite the on going c angstrom unitaign to fight racial discrimination in the United States. Technically, the word Bamboozle means to purposely puzzled, play a joke on or mislead. (Holden, p. 1) Shelton Jackson lee or better known as the delineation director Spike downwi nd is the main person stinkpot the creation of the great black American movie, Bamboozled.As a multi knowing pack director, manufacturer and actor as he is, Spike Lee single handedly authored and directs the satirical movie Bamboozled, during the fall of 2000. Born on March 20, 1975, the African American Spike Lee is an Emmy and Academy award winner, on which he as come up receives various nominations for best American flash director, writer, actor and producer. Technically, conductor Spike Lees movies have something to do with race relations the medias utilization in modern or contemporary life poverty and urban crime and political controversies or thins.For the movie Bamboozled, director Spike Lee reads his counter argument over the broad success of minstrel show in television, despite of the fact that the program has racial discrimination on its content. (IMDb. com, Inc. ) In a sense, director Spike Lee was known for his movies that grant with different controversial pol itical and social matter, and his profound thinking to guarantee and represent critical issues of the United States society.And also, apart from being a movie director, writer and producer, Spike Lee teaches for the college student at Columbia University and New York University for the film production subject. In addition to this, director Spike Lee also work for his own production company, 40 acres & angstrom A mule Filmworks, on which he produce 35 films already that started way back 1983, including his controversial movie of Bamboozled. (IMDb. com, Inc. ) As an overview, the movie Bamboozled was specifically designed to be facetious, on which the film feature all of its characters in blackface, in all of their performance.In principle, the movie is composed by set of talented African American black artists, from different fields and expertise. Moreover, most of the black icons that appear in the movie as themselves are protesting for the television series, on which they firmly believe, was discriminating in content. In a sense, movie Bamboozled is a film, which various black artists from different profession in the United States, gathers unitedly and appear in the movie as their selves to show their unite designs as black Americans to fight the issue of racial discrimination.In a technical manner, script for the movie Bamboozled was specifically written by Spike Lee to depict how rant and grief the medias depictions of black American people. (HBS Entertainment, Inc. ) In a brief review on the storyline, the movie Bamboozled tells the narrative of the victorious television program, on which the content of the show is depiction of racial discrimination that forthrightly pertains to the niggers or the black African American.Considered as bingle of the socially applicable movie, the film Bamboozled by director Spike Lee gives a overhaul picture of racial discrimination between the black people and blank American people. Nevertheless, the movie sen ds a concrete pass along to entire American society that as a democratic country, every citizen of the state mustiness have an equal treatment, regardless if he or she is a black African American or livid people.In a sense, the movie tells how simply and truly depicts the African black American in most of the successful television show in the United States. Technically, the Bamboozled minstrel show was an American form of entertainment, on which consists of various way form of amusement that are comic skirts, artistic acts, dancing and music that is normally performed by sporting American people wearing blackface makeup, as their primary role of entertain the audience and as the focal point of the entire content of the program.In deeper understanding, the minstrel television show, though entertaining in its nature, the entire content is arguably discriminating, on which the social right of black African American, as the blacks were delineated in the shows content in a mocking and disrespecting way of entertainment. Totally, the Bamboozled movie is a firm citation of the determination and the unification of black African American community to fight for their right of fair(a)ness as well as equality in the entire American society.Nevertheless, the movies theme is humorous comedy yet was strong way to send a pregnant message for the people of the entire United States. In addition to this, melodrama is other theme of the movie, on which the latter part of the movie depicts heart melt scene. Nevertheless, the movie bamboozled depicts the augmentation of racial discrimination in the Unite State that had been the yearn time dilemma by most of the black African American.In the movie, the film director Spike Lee uses his profound yet argumentative thought to tackle the controversial issue of medias discriminating representation of the black African American, in most of the widely accepted and successful television shows in the country. With the exact and pr oper review of the entire structure of the movie, the film Bamboozled is definitely unrivaled of the movies that have social relevance, on which sends concrete message that is definitely essential to resolve the specific issue of racial disparity.Moreover, the film Bamboozled has its cultural and historical setting in its storyline. In the movie, there many scenes to cite for its cultural context, one of those is the depiction of director Lee on the association of all the black people to fight together for their unified goal of racial equality in television programs, as equivalent to the entire American society. The movies cultural context can definitely cited in the films socially meaningful message that every American deserves an equal share of treatment in every way, regardless if he or she is a black African American or white native American.Nevertheless, the cultural context of the movie is visibly evident in the entire storyline of the film, on which I gives a clear and fai r picture of racial disparity in the American society. The historical context of the movie, on the other hand, is visible on the use or nerve centre of the minstrel show. As a form of entertainment, minstrel show is one of the ancient ways of entertainment that had occurred after the American Civil.With the use of blackface as the primary way of amusement, the historical context of the movie is visibly clear, on which blackface was already use as a form of entertainment in the history racial discrimination in the American society. (NPR. org) In the end, the Bamboozled is one of the socially, culturally and historically relevant movies that fairly tackles the racial disparity issue in America and gives an essential message over the entire society. Nevertheless, this Bamboozled movie of director Spike Lee is a powerful representation of unified black African American society to fight the issue of racial disparity.References S. Holden (2000), Bamboozled (2000) Retrieved May 22, 2008 f rom http//movies. nytimes. com/movie/review? _r=2&res=9C01E2D9163CF935A35753C1A9669C8B63&oref=slogin IMDb. com, Inc. (2008), Biography for Spike Lee Retrieved May 22, 2008 from http//www. imdb. com/name/nm0000490/bio HBS Entertainment, Inc. (2008), Bamboozled Retrieved May 22, 2008 from http//efilmcritic. com/review. php? movie=4502 NPR. org (2008), The Legacy of Blackface Retrieved May 22, 2008 from http//www. npr. org/templates/story/story. php? storyId=1919122

Monday, January 21, 2019

L’Oréal And It’s Strategy Analysis Essay

IntroductionLOral is the gild that I choose to be discussed. The reason why I choose this high society is because they argon the conception tip ornamental and ravisher products company and they have a salutary strategy for me to discuss on. LOral is a nonfunctionals and beauty products company and it was founded at Clichy, France in 1909. Eugne Schueller is the founder of the company, who became an instructor at the Sorbonne after completed his study in the Institute for Applied chemical science in Paris. LOral was primarily named as Socit Francaise des Teintures Inoffensives pour Cheveux which means French Society for Inoffensive impress of Hair. It is a French based company which headquartered in Paris. There atomic number 18 over 130 countries operating this company similar S out(a)h and northernmost America, Africa and Middle East, Europe, Asia and others, with up to 25 international markings. The international brands under LOral include LOral Professional, Lancme P aris, Kiehls, Shu Uemura, Krastase and others.Production and marketing is the principal(prenominal) scopes that focus by the company beside the dermatologic and pharmaceutical fields. They ar more concentrate on tomentumsbreadth colours, whittle disquiet, fragrances and perfumes, cosmetic products and styling products which are speci completelyy created for individual and professional customers. They too came out with kids products which are known as LOral Kids. The explore team of LOral was first started with only 3 chemists but it is now expanded to nearly 2000 chemists. Now, there are fin research and development centre of LOral globally. LOral have a slogan of Because were cost it, which is withal their vision statement. The reason why they have this vision is because of mental synthesis a good customer relationship is what the company priority concern.This is to bring home the bacon consumers with more satisfied products by the companys lifestyle and philosophy. LOral believes that e rattlingone aspires to beauty. This is where they come out with their mission statement and do the business more meaningful and valuable. They wish to help everyone in the world, no matter male or female, get knows to their own aspiration and richly acquit their personalities. LOral is the worlds leading cosmetics and beauty products company. Previously, Procter & Gamble was at the top ranking in this industry.By the substantive focus in LOral, they are capable in targeting on more investment in explore and Development as well as advertising. Through the investment, it also enables the company become a  correctly force within the industry. In additional, LOral also became the worlds biggest supplier for cosmetic products which hold over 19% market shares. By contrast, the company that rank second, which is the Este laudator was quite far distant from LOral as it occupied only 8%. With the help of new wave technology, LOral also took a hard stone s throw in the introduction of their fell care products.Strategic Analysis donkeywork Analysis of LOralStrengthsThe main strength of LOral is to offer the best products to their customers by continually conducting strong and new research, innovation and development in the concept of beauty. They are also leading the beauty and cosmetic industry with this type of research strategy, level(p) in the competition market. Besides, LOral situated more consideration in their specific actions and events. Their actions and events basically will be shared out into five groups and the consumer product division as the main. In consumer product division, all their scopes are published through and through a gigantic market. Secondly is their opulence product division that included international brands.These products can get it through perfumeries, department outlet and duty free outlets. The next is their expert hair care items utilized by the expert beauticians and market through hair salon. This has been categorized into the professional product division and this division helps to keep up the nature of Loreal Group. Other than that, another efficacy of LOral is about their advertising strategy that being the key element toward the growth of the company. Throughout accomplishing the nature of their target market promotes through advertizing is the most ideal way.WeaknessesDispersible of the hierarchical structure within a company is the greatest shortcoming which is usually faced by most of the transcription including LOral. On account of the numerous subdivisions of LOral make it harder to run and control by the company. Thus, as a result of this, the manufactures of plaque become more inefficient. Another weakness which the musical ar regulatement confronts is that their profits. The margin between their cost price and offering cost is relatively lower than their other minor rivals. Thus, the profit they earn is several(predicate) from their expectation. Th is is in any case happening in extensive advertisement and marketing. Last but not least, LOrals multinational promoting strategy is also their weakness. The reason why is become their shortcoming is mainly due to a few distinctions happened in the promotion and campaign of LOral products, in the matter of what kind of image they are trying to present.OpportunitiesLOral Group targeted on providing beauty and makeup products for polar age levels of ladies. The constant market demand on these beauty products had sanction LOral to take the opportunity to focus on their areas of expertise, especially on their hair styling and colour, fragrance and perfume, cosmetics and skin cares. LOral appeared with a famous and familiar image around the world even in those developing countries. This company acts as the pioneer brand in the industry as well. Another open door for the organization is that they obtained a lot of market share because of numerous registered patents by LOral.ThreatsFor LOral, the greatest affright they commonly visit is that they need to confront with competitions among the same industry. Because their products continue to increase with, and therefore this may cause other brands took LOral advantage of their profits. Besides, different economic conditions can also pose a panic to LOral. Since the greater parts of the products are just inside the range of the populace of developed nations yet in some way LOral takes care of this issue. Moreover, they realize products for the populace of under developed nations. In this manner, although the public do not think that LOrals products are daily needs, and it may be go with rejection, but the company is still in the best production lines to produce their products.Porters Five Force Model of LOralRivalry among the competitive firms (High)Various companies competitiveness, for example Proctor and Gamble, Avon, Estee Lauder and Shiseido push LOral into the more elevated beat of rivalry in the curren t business of cosmetic and skin care products. These contenders attempt to increase more market shares by keeping put on various strategies. LOral needs nonstop fictitious character enhancements for every production line in order to guarantee selection of this company in the industry. They must enhance their marketing channels with the financial aid of highest technology and innovation to obtain more market share and globally targeted their market.Potential Entrants (Low)It can be considered very low in the interlocking of potential entrants into this moderate industry. The market already exists with strong company like Estee Lauder, Avon, Olay, Proctor and Gamble, as well as LOral. This is very obvious that, there will be no serious threat or maybe little threat from any beginner of the business. LOral does not appear to have such a tremendous risk from any potential entrants.Potential Developments of Substitutes (Low)Aging is the main reason why people around the world ne ed skin cares. As a leader in cosmetic and beauty sector, LOral seem like does not disturb by any potential substitute that come into the market. In additional, there is slight substitution in the anti-aging products and so, it brings less threat to the market.Bargaining Power of Suppliers (LOW)LOral in the profession is a giant, has the huge readiness that their production is exceeding 45 billion units every year, and therefore the supplier will have little opportunity to pose the enormous threat to LOral. It is huge in world the quantity of supplier. wherefore the supplier has few or simply does not have the ability to bargain with LOral. Therefore, LOral not faced with too many threats from its supplier.Bargaining Power of Customers (High)The appearances of numerous advocateful competitors like Procter & Gamble, Shiseido, Avon and other companies cause higher bargaining power of customer in the market. Because the usability of different companys different products are high , the potential customer has the choice to go for other companies. Therefore, LOral faced with threat of lack of customer. In this situation, LOral must deal with this threat earnestly, as to maintain the market share of this company in profession.