Monday, September 30, 2019

Women’s Self Esteem: NOT Because of the Media

The subject of media’s impact on women has been a big issue for several years now.   However, how does self esteem or one’s concept of oneself really develop?   Does the media really have any influence on this?   No, the media does not influence women’s development of self image.   Women’s self-images come from a number of internal sources, including their natural role as nurturers, how their needs are met, and other personal things. First of all, a person develops as a part of a family.   A little girl will learn, based on her family’s actions, to either trust or mistrust peoples’ intentions, as per Erik Erikson’s series of crises.   This will tell her, in time, whether she is worthy of positive attention or not.   If she is worthy of positive attention, then she will begin to develop good self esteem and a positive self image.   If, however, her family is cold or neglectful towards her, she will develop a negative self image and poor self esteem. As the girl grows into a teenager, these early experiences will prove far more important than any outside sources.   A teen who was raised in a loving household will be far more likely to have a positive self image than one who was not.   This has nothing to do with the media, only with personal influences.   As the teen grows into a woman, she will come to see her role in life based on these experiences.   If her experiences were positive, she will see herself in a positive light, and will probably want to give to others.   If her experiences were negative, she may be selfish and will see herself in a negative light. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs will affect a woman’s self esteem, too.   A woman who cannot even get her basic needs met, or who hasn’t had them met since childhood (food, water, shelter) will develop a negative self concept, because she may believe she was not worthy of anything.   She will also be far more concerned about getting these needs met than anything else, which doesn’t allow for higher needs.   If a woman’s need for love and belongingness aren’t met (through friends, family, lovers, etc.), she may also have a lower self-esteem. A woman who has many friends and loved ones, who is well liked, will have a higher self esteem.   A woman who is having all of her needs met and who is striving towards self-actualization should have very high self esteem, because she feels fulfilled in all areas of her life, and is able to strive towards betterment all the time.   This also allows for a solid self concept. Women who have met challenges in their lives and won will tend to have higher self esteem than those who have not been challenged or who have lost.   A woman who has always had good friends, who has always had her needs met, and who has always excelled in some area will have a much better self concept than one who has had few friends, has sometimes not had her needs met, and has infrequently, if ever excelled at anything.   These individual influences determine much more about a person’s self esteem than does anything as elusive as the media. Women traditionally have a role as nurturers.   Even if an individual woman does not necessarily feel like a nurturer, this will still have to play into her identity as a woman.   A woman who accepts her role as a nurturer and a caregiver will likely be less conflicted, and more likely to have high self esteem.   A woman who is a nurturer is meeting her role in society and in life, and therefore would feel more fulfilled.   A woman who is not a nurturer may feel guilty, and may have lower self esteem.   Some women who are not nurturing are able to get beyond their feelings of guilt and be happy and have high self esteem anyway, but it is a conflict that almost all women must face in their lives. Outside sources are not nearly as important to women as their own internal conflicts and their personal lives.   A woman who is secure in her family and friends, and in her own power (as an individual with intelligence and talent) is less likely to care what the media or any ‘unknown’ source says.   The media may portray women any way they wish, but women who have a solid personal life are not going to be swayed by it.   Women who, on the other hand, do not have a strong self concept, are probably also not swayed by the media.   They already feel like they are bad, stupid, ugly, etc., and what the media portrays is not going to change that, either.   Outside sources are not big influences. With all of the internal sources, it is clear that the development of self esteem is a lifelong process, one that starts in very young children and continues into adulthood.   People who have their needs consistently met and who face challenges and win them will develop healthy self esteem.   Those who do not have their needs met or who lose challenges will not develop healthy self esteem.   This happens regardless of anything that goes on in the media.   In general, people vastly overestimate the importance of the media in the development of self esteem.   It is assumed that the media can actually change anything in a girl’s life, when in reality, her own life experiences are what guides her in developing her self esteem and self concept.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Analysis of John Howard Griffin’s “Black Like Me” Essay

John Howard Griffin’s research should undeniably be considered sociological. He began with a theory, if he became black he could help understand the difficulties between races as both a white man and a black man in the south and with this knowledge develop a means to bridge the gap. With this information he developed a micro-theory, trying to explain a limited part of human behavior; why is there hate among blacks and whites? He collected his data in a process of explanatory research. He needed to test his theory in order to elaborate existing explanations. He gathered all his data and went through all research methods in the hopes of explaining his theory. He followed the research process; developed a question, took into account what would be needed to answer the question, decided how to get this and conducted it as ethical as a black-white southerner could. He used a meta-analysis in examining the information. Griffin improved the description of the relationship while developing explanations for the cause of such activity and aimed to advance research in this area by gathering new knowledge. Finally, when he gathered all his information he released it to the mass media. Although it takes the form of a journal it should still be considered sociological research. The diary method is, in fact, beneficial. Instead of conducting a cross sectional form of research in which information is gathered at one particular time, Griffin, using the diary, conducted a longitudinal study. With such a study change can be identified and a broader understanding will develop in the hopes of answering the research question. Of coarse when such a research method as a diary is used questions arise as to its validity and reliability. It can be assumed that the reliability of Griffin’s work is quite substantial. He had an insider perspective due to his covert observation and participant observation. His information was derived from a large population across more than one state, while still focusing on the southern parts of America. All the persons mentioned in the diary shared the same belief; whites were limiting the black potential. Then it must be asked whether the diary was biased or not. Since it was, in reality, a diary, the information published could be selective. This then questions the validity of the  research. There is no doubt that Griffin had opinions on the topic before it was investigated. However, the research was also very generalizable. This should help to alleviate many of the doubts towards the ethics of the means of research. Since human behavior is very complex it is difficult to narrow down the independent variable. All doubts on validity aside, the research was conducted in a meth od of sociological nature. It was a combination of participant observation, covert observation and unstructured interviews. For example, Griffin had conversations at the YMCA with other black men, or on the bus between New Orleans and Mississippi. These weren’t done with an outlined set of questions; they were conducted by way of one oppressed African-American to another. In conducting his research in such an unobtrusive manner Griffin helped the media identify the setting, the human and social environment, their activities and behaviors, and non-verbal communication. In this method Griffin wasn’t looking to prove causality, rather looking to support his argument in hope for change. With all this taken into account it can be summarized that Griffin followed the research process and used sociological methods. Norms are generally defined as an aspect in society in which an expected behavior binds a certain group of people. However, norms can be applied to many different areas. It can mean placing a set standard for achievement on a certain communal grouping based on the accomplishments of the average person from that grouping. It can also mean a characteristic that is representative of a social group. Or norms can be considered a common practice, belief or custom . However when dealing with norms it must be understood that they apply differently depending on the context of the situation. Much like social norms vary from legal norms. Social norms were the predominant force Griffin encountered throughout his research. Although legal norms played a particular part, judgment was based on the structures of mutual belief, not necessarily judicial. For example, the â€Å"whites† of the southern United States were holding the assumption that the â€Å"blacks† were sexually demented and intellectually impaired (Griffin, 1962: p. 114). The southern white majority assumed that African-Americans were so open about  their sex lives that they even performed activities in the streets and in front of children. They also believed that the blacks wanted white woman sexually and that due to their lack of education all they knew was their natural instinct to reproduce. They assumed this behavior to be applicable to all African-American men. As Griffin tries to explain, he can find no inferiority amongst the blacks; â€Å"These characteristics don’t spring from whiteness or blackness, but from a man’s conditioning† (Griffin, 1962: p. 92). Role taking is a critical part of fostering any sober understanding of a relevant society. It involves looking at things from a different viewpoint. This assists us in understanding how different groups perceive us. We have to know what we look like through others eyes. In order to achieve this we must first understand their mind frame. John Howard Griffin goes through great lengths to achieve this. He understands that it is practically impossible for him to fully comprehend what life is like for a black man, while being a white man in the southern United States. Thus he undergoes pigment therapy that redefines his life. Griffin darkens his skin in order to appear as though he were a black American, in the hopes to achieve an unbiased account of African-American life in the deep south. By infiltrating the seemingly distinct society and adapting to the practices of that society Griffin has undergone role taking. When in New Orleans, Griffin’s first area of research as a black s outherner, he quickly learns of the limitations enforced only by the fact that his skin color was different. By becoming the minority studied, Griffin was not only able to study, first hand, the accounts of racism, but he was also able to emotionally attach himself to the African-American society. Alienation is the separation between â€Å"parts or the whole of the personality and significant aspects of the world of experience.† This term can have many meanings depending on the situation and for whom it is intended. In terms of Griffin’s book, alienation was the physical segregation and the emotional feeling of inequality and unequal opportunities based on skin color. Alienation was evident throughout Griffin’s experiences. Separate waiting rooms at bus stations, separate washrooms and fountains, isolated living  areas, the inability to purchase food and drinks at certain stores, the inability to rest in certain areas, unequal job and education abilities, all formed the feeling of alienation. (Griffin, 1962: p. 92) Griffin realized that this division, both physical and emotional would have to be overcome in order to attain a greater appreciation as a race. Griffin and many blacks alike thought education was the key to destroying the norm of alienation. â€Å"Equal job opportunities†¦ That’s the answer to much of the tragedy of our young people† (Griffin, 1962: p. 44). According to Griffin there were two problems that caused this alienation and lack of motivation to change, they were: the discrimination against the Negro and his discrimination against himself (Griffin, 1962: p. 45). According to Griffin then, it was not only the fault of the whites that the blacks were in the situation they were, it was partly the fault of the blacks as well. Stereotypes are formed when the characteristics of a certain group of people are based on the generalized characteristics of a few. They are most often used to simplify that which we have difficulty understanding, in order to make it more predictable. As W.I. Thomas taught, what we believe to be true will be true in its consequences. Throughout history racial stereotypes have always existed. Perhaps, though, the most dominant stereotypes have been placed against African-Americans. They have been thought of as uneducated, immature, unmotivated, criminal, violent and sexual predators. However, as Griffin points out, the sins the whites commit are the same as the blacks. Except for the fact that blacks are deprived of the â€Å"pleasures of the spirits†. They feel like a lesser person so in order to acquire that feeling of accomplishment and manhood they engage in such activities (Griffin, 1962. p. 91-93). After all, it is the white man who, all through the book, is intrigued by the sexual natures of the black race. It is the whites who hire black prostitutes and it is the whites who violently punish the blacks. Not only are the stereotypes revealed, they are identified as completely illegitimate. In one instance on a bus in New Orleans Griffin attempted to offer an elderly lady a seat by indicating with his eyes that there was an empty one beside him. He thought she would be sympathetic, however she disrespectfully replied, â€Å"What’re you looking at me like that for?† Implying that there were sexual desires instead of kindness behind his offering  (Griffin, 1962: p 25). Reductionism in sociological research places limits on what can be considered as causes when attempting to explain a range of human behavior. Griffin may have been affected by reductionism due to the fact that he was writing a sociological paper. As a result he may have focused on such limited topics as norms, stereotypes and alienation. An economist, however, may have looked at the economic prosperity in the south compared to other parts to explain the racial tensions. Perhaps even the government would be to blame for enforcing racism through propaganda and unequal laws. A biological reductionism would be trying to reduce the problem down to the genes of the human being or as a revolutionary process. In order to achieve a full understanding of the situation, all accounts should be measured, not only those which apply to a specific field. Therefore, the validity and reliability of the research can be questioned. For example, in Griffin’s book, he focuses only on the stereotypes of society, not where they come from. He doesn’t attempt to answer why whites feel hatred towards the blacks, only that it exists. Perhaps the underlying problem is purely situational. The south is known for its farms and small communities, but does this problem exist in the larger cities throughout North America? And if it doesn’t, why not? If it doesn’t exist than it is strictly environmental. Griffin mentions that there are those people who are not actually racist, but they fear showing any sympathy towards another race. What causes this fear? There must be some form of pressure from somewhere that causes this racism. All these questions must be answered in order to truly define the problems between African-Americans and Caucasians. Griffin did a fine job in writing the introduction to racism, however he left the body blank.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Major Influences in My Life Essay

It is often reiterated that â€Å"success is one percent inspiration and ninety nine percent perspiration. † I also strongly believe in it as I recall the successful events in my life, whose gradual path towards achievement was shaped by initiation developed by motivation; however, the successful implementation was attained through my sheer hard work and perseverance. I have always considered my work as my hobby, and I try my best to finish the work within the stipulated time. I don’t expect miracles to happen, but I have experienced that miracles happen when work is done with sincerity and diligence. Besides, there have been men and women from all walks of life, who provided the emotional support to me in my distress. Among the most trustworthy persons whom I always relied upon was my mother. I can evidently remember the difficult times during my education at school when my mother instilled the much need confidence in me, and encouraged me to never give up. It is true that education begins at home, and I was fortunate to have scholarly parents, who always tried to provide the necessary paraphernalia to me, including their assistance in understanding the difficult subjects. Read more:  Person I admire  essay I learnt good morals from my religious mother, who inculcated virtues like honesty, loyalty, care for the elderly, and affection towards the children. My firm faith in God is also due to the holy teachings of scriptures conveyed to me by my pious mother. She always taught me to love all humanity, and to follow the path of non-violence. I see myself as a mature, independent and judicious person, for which I would give the credit to my loving mother. During my school education, my teachers treated me like their friend, and emphasized the importance of punctuality and regularity in both professional as well as personal life. I owe my gratitude to my mathematics teacher, who once, said to me, â€Å"It is important to have a goal, but it is more important to work towards reaching that goal. † My teachers also highlighted the importance of patience and tolerance that are needed in implementing any plan. Slowly and steadily, I kept on developing these personality traits in me, and I confess that I am grateful to my teachers for imparting such motivational and positive education to me. I would also like to acknowledge the contribution of my supervisor at the McDonald’s restaurant, who helped me to identify my strengths and weaknesses. Whenever I committed a mistake, my supervisor would politely tell me about my wrong deeds, and moreover, suggest an optimum solution. It was under his supervision that I learnt good workplace skills like time management, organizational management, decision making and problem solving. Although my supervisor was kind, good listener, encouraging and forgiving, I noticed that he was never angry, and kept his cool in most difficult times. I admire him for his positive qualities, and I must admit that I have learnt some of these good traits from him; as a result, I have been able to balance my personal and professional life due to proper management of time and stress. I have realized that learning is a continuous process that continues the whole life, but to apply the virtues in practical life, there are role models who provide the necessary encouragement. I owe my gratitude to my parents, especially my mother, my teachers at school, and to my supervisor, who enabled me to imbibe the morals, and practice them in daily life. As a result of their positive influence, I have become a responsible citizen of the society. I have firm faith in myself, and also, I confide in my friends and relatives. My teaching lessons from home and school have equipped me with problem solving and decision making skills. Besides, my mentors have helped me to acquire good interpersonal skills, which have made me adorable among friends and colleagues. Now, I continue to learn from my distinguished professors in the university as I pursue a rigorous undergraduate degree program.

Friday, September 27, 2019

The Deans Welcome Learning Technique Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Deans Welcome Learning Technique - Essay Example There were various concentrations I can pursue within the MBA program. The marketing concentration would provide the greatest value for me. In today’s business environment where consumers have so many options marketing is the business function that can provide differentiation for a company. The marketing field provides the tools needed for companies to expand beyond the domestic marketplace into international waters. In the job marketplace I’ve notice that there are lots of high paying job positions for people in the field of marketing. In 2008 the average salary of marketing executive was $175,000 (Salary, 20009). Marketing is a branch of business administration that allows people to make decision that impact the most important variable of an enterprise which is its total sales. An education in marketing at the graduate level will provide me a career path that involves creativity, working in the field, interpersonal communication, and evaluation of information among many other aspects. It is a concentration that opens up many work opportunities. An individual pursue an MBA degree must have certain managerial competencies to become an effective leader. The program at UOP online will enable students do develop these skills and competencies that are necessary to become a successful manager. The MBA Matrix included in the Dean’s Welcome provides an illustration of 24 managerial competencies. A self-evaluation of my personal abilities in relation to this list would reveal that some my strengths are communication skills, global mentality, critically thinking and teamwork. I like to write and communication with people in formal and informal settings. In the business world technical report skills are important they are utilize in our daily activities at work. Since the start of the convergence era which commenced at the turn of the century globalization has become more important than ever. The internet and the arrival of broadband connections

Thursday, September 26, 2019

American Apparel Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

American Apparel - Assignment Example This leadership style could be disadvantageous when American Apparel expands in future. Thus in the subsequent years, it is necessary that the management of American Apparel makes serious attempts to separate the repute and corporate image of the company from the personal life of Dov Charney. Moreover, with the growth and expansion of American Apparel, it would be advisable to shift towards a flatter hierarchy of business management. The success of the business strategies of a company depends on the alignment of the strategies with the core business strengths of the company. This is because the consideration of the strengths of the company while planning its future business strategies would ensure that American Apparel sustains its competitive advantage over time. The strategies that America Apparel should pursue in consideration to its unique business strengths in order to ensure future success are discussed as follows: American Apparel had always concentrated on the market segment comprising of young adults and believed that there was enormous potential for high quality and elegant fashion essentials in this segment (American Apparel, 2011). The designs as well as aesthetics of the products offered by American Apparel should hence be attractive and alluring to the young and urban adults. American Apparel should offer a line of iconic and everlasting styles for their target segment throughout the year in an extensive assortment of colours. They should also make an attempt to price their offerings at a reasonable rate. This would facilitate the sustainability of American Apparel over time. The advertisement campaigns of an organization communicate an exclusive and specific brand image of the business that differentiates it from its peers (Shah, & D’Souza, 2009). American Apparels’ advertising campaigns should attempt to build a connection with its target customers.

The Impact of social Networking on Customer Loyalty Thesis

The Impact of social Networking on Customer Loyalty - Thesis Example This essay stresses that Facebook is one of the widely use social networking websites around the world. The number of users of social media is increasing with the passage of time however youngsters are more inclined towards using of social media than people of other ages. Moreover most of the people are logging their accounts on a daily basis and thus, it has encouraged businesses to use social media to convey their marketing messages as well. Social media websites are used for different purposes, one of them is that people do research and gather information about the products and services. Social Networking Sites are a very important part of Web 2.0. SNSs have become a powerful force in shaping public opinions on virtually every aspect of commerce. SNS imply word-of-mouth marketing, and have an increasing influence on customers’ purchase decisions and in turn affects customer loyalty. The study of this topic has been really interesting due to the image that the social media portray in the society. Although there was not so much time and mean I managed to have convenient samples for a small case study, which is thus a hindrance to generalize the result of the finding. However convenient sample could provide springboard for further research. The work could have been easier if only the questionnaire has been done based on the theory chapter. Due to some misunderstanding some theories were not letter consider as to be one hence some theories has to be included latter. So the challenge was to make sure that the new.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

The Criticism against New York City Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

The Criticism against New York City - Essay Example These include hygiene and health issues, overcrowding, crime, poverty, ethnic conflict, and abysmal housing conditions, particularly in the tenements. A study of the criticisms about the city and the grounds on which it is based is very illuminating. The problem of cleanliness has plagued New York City throughout its history and its association with filth remains to this day. Steinbeck said "New York is an ugly city, a dirty city".1 At one time, it was so dirty, pigs made the city their home and roamed the streets freely. Charles Dickens in his American Notes (1842), 2 gives a humorous account of the "gentlemen hogs" as the city's self - appointed scavengers and contributors of filth and disease. In addition to the disgraceful lack of cleanliness, the city did not have an adequate garbage disposal or sewer system. Therefore the city was susceptible to the attack of infectious diseases. New York has found itself in the grip of epidemic disease more often than it would care to remember. In the words of Lankevich, "Yellow fever visited the city five times between 1795 and 1822, and in 1832, a new strain of cholera swept into New York. Cholera reappeared in 1834, 1849, and 1855, typhoid fever ravaged the immigrants in 1837, and typhus erupted in 1842".3 Frances Trollope in her Domestic Manners of the Americans remarked on the queer practice New Yorkers had of fleeing the city in particular seasons in order to escape the dreaded plague. Over the years as the situation became increasingly serious and disease continued to ravage the city and its populace, public officials and the citizens themselves did everything they could to improve living conditions. Consequently there was considerable improvement in cleanliness levels and killer diseases were kept at bay. It is the general opinion that New York has failed to resolve its hygiene issues to this very day. Most critics insist that the city has not risen to the challenge of sanitation. They point to the slums which remain cesspools of dirt and disease, as evidence to support their claim. Moreover the city continues to wrestle with health issues, particularly the problem of communicable diseases. While diseases like cholera and typhoid have been effectively controlled thanks to the intervention of modern medical science, more threatening diseases like Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) have emerged to plague the populace. At one time it was considered to be hardly a cause for alarm as it was believed to be restricted exclusively to the homosexual community. Statistics however tell a different story of the rapid spread of AIDS in epidemic proportions. Greenfield and Reid state, "New York City ranks number one in the country when it comes to its rate of AIDS cases per population - and has more cases than the four runner - up cities combined".4 Truly a shocking state of affairs! From hordes of swine to deadly viruses the city continues to struggle with hygiene and disease. In the face of things, hygiene and disease seem miniscule issues when compared to the problems that have stemmed from the city's rapidly increasing population. New York City has thrown open its gates to immigrants of various ethnic backgrounds. Russians, Germans, Irish, Jews and Asians have thronged to its shores

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Summary and response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Summary and response - Essay Example Some of the robots that will take part in the competition have artificial intelligence that is slightly lower than that of human being. As such, they require little human interception. Some are able to walk on four artificial leg with multiple joints that enables it to climb a ladder and hoofer around a building or an object. According to the article, participants reckons that the competition is a challenging affair as they impressive innovation from major manufacturers in America. In this case, the competitors equate the challenge with that of autonomous car challenge. On the positive note, they argue that the competition will improve the present day humanoid robots that can respond to disasters such as the nuclear plant disasters that have hit various parts of the world. Some of the robots such as the CHIMP will have legs that can fold and double as treads. These features enable the robot to operate in rough terrain and hence very efficient in rescue missions. Lastly, the article suggests that robots challenge will ensure great improvement especially in the consecutive years. As a consequence, it is most likely that advanced robots will serve human kind in various ways. I normally visualize the concept of robots as a convenient replacement of inefficiencies caused by human being. Though robots require human interception in their operations, it is worth noting that they are more efficient that human beings, especially in difficult tasks. I believe that robots can perform serious tasks in environments that are inaccessible or that pose danger to human being. The competition that is described in this article presents a prime opportunity to manufacturers of robots. Firstly, I believe that even those who will not participate will have a chance of gauging the level of technology exhibited in the competition. Secondly, the participants have a chance of walking away with huge sums of money as prices. This creates an

Monday, September 23, 2019

Methodology and Design Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Methodology and Design - Essay Example e cupcake business, questionnaires on online shopping, focus group with potential customers, and pilot study through selling of cupcakes at a local event. The in-depth look into the various elements of achieving a good research was the key aspects of the design methodology. The study also adopted secondary data such as review of the reported cases from the university, the university policy and the government policy on how the online business platform should be handled. The target population will be the businesspersons from both the online and physical cupcake enterprises with main focus on the former. The online businesses experts will also be engaged in an in-depth interview with the main focus being getting the expertise view into the venture to undertaken. The sample population for the study is also targeted at the customers of the cupcake. This is targeted as a means of getting to know their take on the business to be ventured into. A maximum number of five potential customers are to be interviewed in some kind of focus group. A local population is also targeted as part of the research sample. The local event is to be used to carry out pilot study through the selling of sample cupcakes. To achieve the objectives of the research, questionnaires were used to collect data. Secondary data i.e. the business experts in the field and also the research resources already gathered from the very line of business. Online business gurus are also to be involved. The questionnaires in both closed and open ended. The questionnaires were pretested for content validity and reliability. The interview method was administered on few experts to gather more useful information for the study. To ensure face validity and content validity of the questionnaires, the researcher intends to consult a number of experts in the field of computing, website and the online businesses shoppers. The question was pilot tested on a number of respondents within the local population at a local

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Hospitality Industry Essay Example for Free

Hospitality Industry Essay Hospitality is the relationship between guest and host, or the act or practice of being hospitable. Specifically, this includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers, resorts, membership clubs, conventions, attractions, special events, and other services for travelers and tourists. The word hospitality derives from the Latin hospes, which is formed from hostis, which originally meant to have power. In the West today hospitality is rarely a matter of protection and survival, and is more associated with etiquette and entertainment. However, it still involves showing respect for ones guests, providing for their needs, and treating them as equals. Cultures and subcultures vary in the extent to which one is expected to show hospitality to strangers, as opposed to personal friends or members of ones in-group. The hospitality service industry includes hotels, casinos, and resorts, which offer comfort and guidance to strangers, whether it be commercial (for monetary gain) or non-commercial (not for profit). The terms hospital, hospice, and hostel also derive from hospitality, and these institutions preserve more of the connotation of personal care. Hospitality ethics is a discipline that studies this usage of hospitality. The Pakhtun people of South-Central Asia, pre-dominant in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan and Afghanistan have a strong code of hospitality. They are a people characterized by their use of Pakhtunwali, an ancient set of ethics, the first principle of which is Milmastiya or Hospitality. The general area of Pakhtunistan is also nicknamed The Land of Hospitality. To the ancient Greeks, hospitality was a divine right. The host was expected to make sure the needs of his guests were seen to. The ancient Greek term xenia, or theoxenia when a god was involved, expressed this ritualized guest-friendship relation. In Greek society a persons ability to abide the laws to hospitality determined nobility and social standing. Celtic societies also valued the concept of hospitality, especially in terms of protection. A host who granted a persons request for refuge was expected not only to provide food and shelter to his/her guest, but to make sure they did not come to harm while under their care. [2] In India, hospitality is based on the principle Atithi Devo Bhava, meaning the guest is God. This principle is shown in a number of stories where a guest is literally a god who rewards the provider of hospitality. From this stems the Indian approach of graciousness towards guests at home, and in all social situations. Hospitality as a cultural norm or value is an established sociological phenomenon that people study and write papers about (see references, and Hospitality ethics). Some regions have become stereotyped as exhibiting a particular style of hospitality. Hospitality management is the academic study of the hospitality industry. A degree in Hospitality management is often conferred from either a university college dedicated to the studies of hospitality management or a business school with a department in hospitality management studies. Degrees in hospitality management may also be referred to as hotel management, hotel and tourism management, or hotel administration. Degrees conferred in this academic field include Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Business Administration, Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, Master of Business Administration, and Doctor of Philosophy. Hospitality management studies provides a focus on management of hospitality operations including hotels, restaurants, cruise ships, amusement parks, destination marketing organizations, convention centers, country clubs, and related industries. The hospitality industry consists of land category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, restaurants, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry. The hospitality industry is a several billion dollar industry that mostly depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income. A hospitality unit such as a restaurant, hotel, or even an amusement park consists of multiple groups such as facility maintenance, direct operations (servers, housekeepers, porters, kitchen workers, bartenders, etc. , management, marketing, and human resources. The hospitality industry covers a wide range of organizations offering food service and accommodation. The industry is divided into sectors according to the skill-sets required for the work involved. Sectors include accommodation, food and beverage, meeting and events, gaming, entertainment and recreation, tourism services, and visitor information. Usage rate or its inverse vacancy rate is an important variable for the hospitality industry. Just as a factory owner ould wish a productive asset to be in use as much as possible (as opposed to having to pay fixed costs while the factory isnt producing), so do restaurants, hotels, and theme parks seek to maximize the number of customers they process in all sectors. This led to formation of services with the aim to increase usage rate provided by hotel consolidators. Information about required or offered products are brokered on business networks used by vendors as well as purchasers. In viewing various industries, barriers to entry by newcomers and competitive advantages between current players are very important. Among other things, hospitality industry players find advantage in old classics (location), initial and ongoing investment support (reflected in the material upkeep of facilities and the luxuries located therein), and particular themes adopted by the marketing arm of the organization in question (for example at theme restaurants). Very important is also the characteristics of the personnel working in direct contact with the customers. The authenticity, professionalism, and actual concern for the happiness and well-being of the customers that is communicated by successful organizations is a clear competitive advantage.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Sophocles Oedipus The King English Literature Essay

Sophocles Oedipus The King English Literature Essay Aristotle defines tragedy as an replication of an action that is made to look serious, comprehensive and of a specific enormity. There as thus six elements which, according to Aristotle, make up the quality of a good tragic drama. These include the plot of the story which gives the flow of the events in the story. The plot must contain the cause and effect whose climax is reached as a result of the earlier incidents and whose end is arrived at from the presiding events. The second element is the character whose work is to support the plot of the drama. For the protagonist, s/he should be celebrated and prosperous and his fortune changes from good to bad. The next element is thought which seen when something has been proved wrong or right. Thought also include the themes that are illustrated in the drama. The fourth element is diction which entails the pronunciation and extraction of the meaning of the story in words. Melody or song is the fifth element and it is attributed to the cho rus and should be wholly incorporated in the play just like the actors. Last is the spectacle which depends on the attractiveness of the stage rather than the creativity of the poet. Aristotle goes ahead to give the characteristics of a tragic hero; he mentions that is of nobility and greatness, he is not always perfect, he should encounter a downfall which is out of fate, and he is to face a punishment that exceeds his crime. However his fall is not a total loss; he becomes aware in the mistakes he makes and though his tragedy arouses some emotions, it does not leave the audience depressed. The play Oedipus the King by Sophocles describes the story of a city, Thebes, which has been struck by a plague. Oedipus is the king of Thebes and his people gather in dismay and ask him to do something so as to save them. Oedipus has already sent Creon to the oracle to consult on how they can save the city. He however comes back with a message that the plague will only end when the killer of the former king of Thebes, Laius, is expelled from the city. He then calls for prophet Tiresias to come and tell him what he knows about the murder. Tiresias seems to know who the murderer is but he is unable to speak. Oedipus blames him for keeping the secret while the people suspect that it is Oedipus who liked the former king (Sophocles, 1947, p.16). In that argument, Tiresias mentions Oedipus parents and he is surprised at how he knew about them while he was brought up in Corinth. Tiresias tell him that he knew Oedipuss parents mysteriously and as he left the stage he points out that the mur derer of Laius will become the brother and father to his own children and the offspring of his own spouse. At the mention of this, Oedipus threatens to kill Creon for siding with Tiresias and the whole place becomes noisy (Sophocles, 1947, p.17). At this point, Jocasta, the window of Laius and also the current Oedipuss wife, comes in and asks what the noise is for. Oedipus explains that the prophet has accused him for the death of Laius but Jocasta assures him that the murder was committed by thieves on a three-way junction before he, Oedipus, came to Thebes. The description of the murder however sounds familiar to Oedipus and he highly suspects that he could be the murderer. He tells Jocasta that he overheard that he was not the true son of the royal family and when he looked for the truth he was told that he will kill his own father and sleep with his own mother thus to avoid this from happening he flee away from Corinth. In his journey, he encountered a group of people who attacked him and killed them all except one in self-defence and that all this happened at the same spot that Jocasta had mentioned (Sophocles, 1947, p.19). He asks for the man, a shepherd, who had survived the tragedy to come and testify hoping that he will not identify him as the murderer. Before he arrives, a messenger comes with the message that Oedipuss father, the king of Corinth is dead and that Oedipus should go and take over the kingdom Jocasta rejoices at this (Sophocles, 1947, p.46). He also mentions that he should not worry since the king was not his biological father and that there was one shepherd who new the whole story well. Oedipus calls for this shepherd to come and testify. Suspecting that the truth will be revealed, Jocasta goes back to the palace. The shepherd does not want to reveal the truth but Oedipus threatens to kill him if he does not tell him. He finally discloses that Oedipus was the son of Laius but was adopted by the king of Corinth after he was disowned by his parents following a prophecy that he would kill his own father and make his mother his wife. Realising his true identity, he yells and goes back to the palace. He finds Jocasta has hanged herself; he removes the pins from her cloths and blinds himself. He comes back bleeding and asking to be expelled from the town (Sophocles, 1947, p.63). He is expelled and goes to wonder in unknown places until steps on a holy ground when he remembers that at some point the gods promised him that he would rest on that ground. He calls for Theseus, the king of Athens who pities for what had befallen Oedipus and offers to help him. Oedipus requests Theseus to take and live with him in until he dies though he cautions that this would bring the rage of Thebes to Athens. Just before his death, a dreadful thunder is heard and Oedipus calls for Theseus. He tells him that his time of death had come and he must perform some rites over Oedipuss body so as to protect the city. He leads Theseus to the place of his death and tells him no to disclose to anyone except his son during his death who is also to do the same. The earth burst open and he just disappeared (Sophocles, 1947, p. 65). From the unfortunate flow of events, we can confidently affirm that Oedipus is the perfect example of Aristotles tragic hero. As a child, a prophecy was made that when he grew up he would put his father to death and marry his mother. His biological parents, Laius and Jocasta try to evade the prophecy by killing him but the gods protect him and he is adopted by a royal family where he is brought up as a prince (Sophocles, 1947, p. 24). As he grows he believes that he can avoid the oracle that he will kill his father and take his mother in marriage. He leaves Corinth thinking that he has outsmarted the will of the gods but instead they are manipulating his will and leading him to the very place that he would commit the murder. At first, Oedipus is a good person and as a king, he virtuously rules Thebes and saves the whole city by giving a solution to the Sphinx riddle. When Thebes experiences the second plague, he tells them that he feels their suffering and that his is even worse than theirs. He knows what is best for his people and they trust his to an extent they take him for God. All the people in Thebes acknowledge his for his good leadership This is the house,and he is the good sir within (Sophocles, 1947, p.46) Since a tragic hero is not perfect, he falls because of his character. He is bad tempered and stubborn; will do anything that he thinks of without considering the outcome. His temper makes him kill his father and his wish to do anything led him to knowing the truth about his ability. Jocasta keeps on telling him not to seek for more information since it may cause him great harm but he insists that he must know the truth. Thus he falls by killing his father and marrying his mother due to his imperfection, an act which he is responsible of. He is born to noble family and the society does not expect him to fall and when he falls, it seems more of a calamity that involves the whole community. The moment he suspects that Laius and Jocasta were his true parents, his suffering begins. He is not at peace and he struggles to know the truth. He seeks information from all reliable sources and when he finally realises the truth, his punishment begins; he pricks his eyes and becomes blind for the rest of his life living away from his rightful home. This punishment is more than he deserves (Sophocles, 1947, p. 63). As his downfall comes to pass and the play comes to an end, the story gains the purgation of the viewers. Throughout the play, Oedipus brings out the sense of fear and pity to the audience. They fear his true identity and do not want to find it out. The pity is brought out by his downfall towards the end of the story. Thus the story is a tragedy drama because it brings out the purgation of the viewers and Oedipus is the tragic hero he has arouse these feelings and fulfilled the other Aristotles requirements.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Mental Health Issues: Demographics, Types and Treatments

Mental Health Issues: Demographics, Types and Treatments Mental health issues May 6 2015 Table of Contents 1 (a) MOST PREVALENT MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES 1 (b) DEMOGRAPHICS OF MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES 1 (c) IMPACT OF MENTAL HEALTH ILLNESS ON THE INDIVIDUAL, THE COMMUNITY, AND THE COUNTRY 1(d) PERCEPTION OF MENTAL ILLNESS 2. IS MARCIA MENTALLY ILL? References 1 (a) MOST PREVALENT MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES Mental health is addressed to a degree of emotional well-being or simply the absence of any mental disorder. In simpler terms, mental health may be defined as an individual’s capability to be able to enjoy life while creating a balance between the routine life activities and adjusting to the adversity and stress in life According to World Health Organization (WHO) ,mental health includes subjective well-being, perceived self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, intergenerational dependence, and self-actualization of ones intellectual and emotional potential, among others (WHO Programme for Mental Health, 1985). The mental health issues or simply mental illness is a disorder o the brain functioning. This may result from complicated interactions in between a person’s genetics and environment. The causes may vary in each individual depending upon the type of mental illness (Mental Illness, History, 2005). Some of the most prevalent mental health issues globally are- Anxiety Disorders: Anxiety disorders further include specific fears, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, etc (Anxiety disorder, 2010). Mood Disorders: These include major depressive disorder, also called as clinical depression and bipolar disorder Psychotic Disorders: alteration of thinking perception and behaviour. These include schizophrenia and other delusional disorders Personality Disorders Eating Disorders: These include anorexia nervosa, binge eating and bulimia nervosa (Farmer, Treasure and Szmukler, 1986). Developmental Disorders: ADHD and autism are included in this category. Behavioural Disorders Addictions: Disorders of craving Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders 1 (b) DEMOGRAPHICS OF MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES Each individual is unique and so are the factors causing mental illness. It is measured that people living in poor socio-economic conditions are more prone to the common mental disorders namey anxiety and depression. This is further worsened by unemployment, poor education status and other financial disadvantages. The most common mental illness in UK today is anxiety. It accounts for affecting 9.2% of the total population.Next in line is depression affecting one in 200 children under the age group of 12 years (Voelker, 1999). This ratio decreases in teenagers to three in 100 . 29% of adults from all areas of life are affected by sleep disorders. In Britain, the prevalence of personality disorder is between 2-13% of the population when men are more affected than women(5.4:3.4%). Another striking study shows the prevalence of schizophrenia at 5 per 1000 individuals each year.ADHD 1.7% of the population of UK. Every year a large number of people would have their lives altered by an mental health issue and it is hence essential that we try to find however much we can about the improvement, onset and treatment of these psychological health issues. 1 (c) IMPACT OF MENTAL HEALTH ILLNESS ON THE INDIVIDUAL, THE COMMUNITY, AND THE COUNTRY Most individuals with mental health issues are tested doubly. People with mental issue are at more risk for compromised quality of life, difficulties in education, poverty due to lower productivity, social issues, prone to abuse, and other health issues. education is almost always compromised due to the early onset of mental health issues which keep people from finishing their training or effectively seeking after a career.also, mental health issues bring about decreased individual productivity due to unemployment, missed work, and diminished profitability at work. This antagonistic cycle might likewise add to high rates of homeless people with mental disorders. Despite the fact that the particular societal effect of mental sickness fluctuates among societies and countries, untreated dysfunctional behavior has noteworthy expenses to society. At the point when mental sickness expenditures and loss of profitability are both considered, the WHO evaluated that mental issue cost national economies a few billion dollars annually.In expansion, mental health issues can compound other general health issues, expanding the weight on national economies and blocking global general health efforts.Although the dominant part of people with dysfunctional behavior dont show risky practices, violence and detainment among rationally sick people can put a critical burden and social weight on communities and countries. 1(d) PERCEPTION OF MENTAL ILLNESS How each individual deals with his mental illness is unique.Sadly, numerous individuals have negative perception of mental health issues. Pessimistic attitudes and an absence of comprehension can bring about individuals with mental health issues to be dealt with wrongfully or labelled in a manner that damages their stand in the society. This is once in a while called stigma, and can influence those with mental or emotional issues and their jobs and families (Thomlinson, 2006). Disposition toward mental health issues variate among people, families, ethnicities, societies, and nations. Social and religious teachings regularly impact convictions about the inceptions and nature of mental sickness, and shape mentality towards the rationally sick (Wallach, 2004). In addition to impacting whether mentally sick people experience societal stigma, beliefs about mental illness can influence patients status and ability to look for and hold fast to treatment. Subsequently, understanding individual and social convictions about altered mental behavior is key for implementing compelling ways to deal with mental health care. 2. IS MARCIA MENTALLY ILL? Our emotional well- being, psychological well -being and social well-being all put together as one defines what we call as mental health (Bhadra, 2012). A healthy mind is essential in all stages of life beginning from childhood and teenage to adulthood. Mental health affects how we feel, what we think and how we act. Marcia though brilliant in her field of work seems to suffer from mental illness. This is underlined by the fact that she stays in her house for days together and even gets her shopping home delivered. She keps herself away from people and the routine activities of life. Her sleep patterns and eating habits are disturbed as she sleeps late at night and even forgets to eat food. Though competent in her work, she failst o maintain her hygiene and does not even perform the basic task of bathing each day. She feels happy in her qon little coccon and does not want to open up and mix with people around her. All these symptoms, though very normal to look at could be masking a serious mental health issue. Marcia should consult with a specialist and change her attitude towards looking at things. She should socialize as man is a social animal and should take care of her health by monitoring her sleep and food patterns. References Anxiety disorder. (2010). BMJ, 340(apr07 1), pp.c1839-c1839. Bhadra, M. (2012). Mental Health Mental Illness: Our Responsibility. Health Renaissance, 10(1). Farmer, A., Treasure, J. and Szmukler, G. (1986). Eating Disorders: A Review of Recent Research. Digestive Diseases, 4(1), pp.13-25. Mental Illness, History. (2005). JAMA, 293(8), p.1007. Thomlinson, P. (2006). Dissecting the Stigma of Mental Illness. PsycCRITIQUES, 51(16). Voelker, R. (1999). Depression in the UK. JAMA, 282(22), p.2111. Wallach, H. (2004). Changes in Attitudes Towards Mental Illness Following Exposure. Community Ment Health J, 40(3), pp.235-248. WHO Programme for Mental Health. (1985). Psychiatric Bulletin, 9(8), pp.158-158.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Fruitland Community Essay -- essays research papers fc

The Friutland Community   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A utopian society is very hard to come across these days. People tend to start a utopian society in order to better the life’s of others. Bronson Alcott of the Fruitland Community tries to find a utopian society that will last and be productive. The Fruitland’s goal is to abstain from worldly activity and integrate systems of trade and labor in order to find spirituality.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Fruitland Community differs from the novel, Anthem more than it is similar. Bronson Alcott designed a community which would help others carry out all their philosophies. His practical needs to act on his high ideals made this community popular, but only for a short time. In the Fruitland community people are not free in all respects. This brings similarity and differences in relating Anthem stated that no individual is free. No one could express one’s thoughts, ideas, or even one’s feelings in Anthem. The Fruitlanders did have individuality, but the people in Anthem felt that it was a sin to see themselves as an individual person. The Fruitland leaders â€Å"wanted to eliminate cattle from the drudgery of farm labor and spare them from the degradation of slaughter for food. However, they also meant to end the need for human contact with animals due to the fact they felt that animals were revolting to the spirit† (3). The Fruitlanders only used resources that would grow above ground; consequently, their food became scarce. They only produced eno...

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Nietzsche: Moving Beyond Good and Evil Essay -- Philosophy Philosophic

Nietzsche: Moving Beyond Good and Evil We have grown weary of man. Nietzsche wants something better, to believe in human ability once again. Nietzsche’s weariness is based almost entirely in the culmination of ressentiment, the dissolution of Nietzsche’s concept of morality and the prevailing priestly morality. Nietzsche wants to move beyond simple concepts of good and evil, abandon the assessment of individuals through ressentiment, and restore men to their former wonderful ability. Nietzsche begins his discussion of good and moral with an etymological assessment of the designations of â€Å"good† coined in various languages. He â€Å"found they all led back to the same conceptual transformation—that everywhere ‘noble,’ ‘aristocratic’ in the social sense, is the basic concept from which ‘good’ in the sense of ‘with aristocratic soul,’†¦ developed†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Nietzsche 909). Instead of looking forward at the achievement for morality, Nietzsche looks backward, trying to find origins and causes of progression. He ultimately comes to the conclusion that strength implies morality, that superiority implies the good man. The powerful nobles, through pathos of difference, construed plebeians and slaves as bad, because of their inferiority in every sense of the word. From this concept of the pathos of difference was born the priestly morality, wherein the nobles were construed in an altogether di fferent and less favorable light. The origins of the priestly morality came from hatred and jealousy. â€Å"It is because of their impotence that in them hatred grows to monstrous and uncanny proportions, to the most spiritual and poisonous kind of hatred. The truly great haters in world history have always been priests; likewise the most ingenuous hat... ... slave morality that has choked the world ever since its inception. Nietzsche has been able to lift himself above the constraints of ressentiment in order to comprehend more fully what a truly great man is, and from what he has seen, he has been disgusted with the individual, wholly disappointed in human beings. He recognizes the nearly endless potential of the human mind, but must sadly turn away from the horror before his eyes that allows the poor, the meek, and the less able to command the respect of society. According to the general public, the birds of prey have become enemies to the world because of their perfect sight, their sharp claws, and their unequivocal ability. Nietzsche sees the lambs as the enemies to the world, the lambs who gaze up at the birds of prey with ressentiment and argue that it is better to be mediocre, it is far more just to be ordinary.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Theory of knowledge

What are the methods of the historians and how do they compare with other methodologies: First of all, we have to know what is the definition of history: It is a branch of knowledge dealing with past events, political, social, economic, of a country, continent, or the world. It is an orderly description of past events. It is also a train of events connected with a person or thing. Secondly I will define what is a method. It is 1) a system, orderliness, 2) it is a way of doing something 3) doing things with 4) it is a science or study of something. The differences between the facts of the past and historical facts: We all know, or think we know, what a fact is: a reliable piece of information, something we know to be, in the common sense meaning of the word â€Å"true†. We also know, or think we know, what an historical fact is. Give examples. These are facts, definite pieces of historical knowledge, close perhaps to the natural scientific knowledge the nineteenth century historians wanted to use as their model of knowledge. But these facts are only the start of history, only the foundation on which history is built. History is not the facts of the past alone but the processing of these facts into a coherent, meaningful interpretation of the past with which these facts are concerned. â€Å"History is the interpretation of these facts, the processing of them into a narrative with causes and effects.† These facts, these pieces of information about the past are important to historians. Historians must be certain of their accuracy, must have confidence in their integrity before they can confidently interpret them for their contemporaries. Historians collect their facts from whenever they can. Certain historical facts, mostly those obtained from archives, may be collected directly by historians themselves. Historians can visit public records offices or churches and examine historical documents directly. Epigraphy is an interesting example of such a discipline. It is the study of ancient inscriptions: letters and words and symbols, chiselled, moulded or embossed on stones. E.g.: the Rosetta stone: it is an inscribed stone found near Rosetta in northern Egypt in 1799. History is a selection: Historians make history by selecting facts and processing them and it is the processing that creates history. History has been described as an enormous jig saw with lots of bits missing. Historians try to create the missing pieces. They can only do this by selecting from all the information available to them. What evidence we have for this comes, of course, from the people in the middle Ages who wrote about their own lives and times. And the people who wrote about their own lives and times in the middle Ages in Europe were monks and priests. Imaginative understanding is an important part of an historian's skill, but imaginative understanding varies from historian to historian. They have to imaginatively understand the minds of the older people. The only way they can do this is by using their own thought processes. Historians recognize that to portray history is impossible. They cannot really be sure of the motives of the writers of the archive documents. â€Å"The past can only be seen through the eyes of the present†. Historian should present their records of the past. Ranke and his fellow nineteenth century historians believed that not only was it possible to present the past â€Å"How it really was† but they also believed they were doing exactly that when they wrote their history books. The historian's job was to collect together a proven body of facts and present them to the readers. Is history a unique area of knowledge? We have seen that natural sciences, mathematics and logic, and the social sciences have distinctive areas of knowledge. Can a similar claim be made for history? YES of course it can be made!!!!. One way of answering this question is to look at the work of historians. As we do this, we should ask ourselves the question † What do historians do that scientists, mathematicians and social scientists do not do?†!!!!!. Four different stages exists: 1) Recording: Some scholars collect records and preserve evidence from the past. If we stick to our definition of historians as interpreters of facts these scholars are not historians in our sense of the word. They are archivists and curators, collectors and preservers. E.G: Nothing is moved until photographs are taken, measurements made and meticulous records compiled of everything that is there and exactly where it is. That is the work of the historical researchers who record and preserve evidence from the past. Every objects is recorded and, as far as possible identified. The historical knowledge these Historians have is no different from the knowledge of natural science: it is empirical and of course objective. Give example of the titanic. 2) Assessment: These historians asses the evidence they have, compare it to other similar evidences that might be available and come to the conclusion that Holden's room are indeed a unique historical event. 3) Reconstructing the past: Having assessed the evidence and accepted its importance, historians now have to use it, to infer from it and to reconstruct the past. They use evidences. Historians also are interested in reconstructing beyond the obvious. They attempt to reconstruct the values of a wealthy youth 100 years ago. 4) Interpreting: Historians ask themselves questions. They might compare the artefacts with other atifacts for instance†¦ Historians' ways of knowing are distinct. They record, assess, reconstruct and interpret in a way that others scholars do not. Historians continually reinterpret the events of the past and reappraise them for each new generation. Historical sources: Primary and secondary sources: The problem with the past is that it has passed. It has gone. The idea of all time past, and present, running parallel is intriguing but until we have the technology to explore other times in reality, we have to explore the past through what the past has left us, through the multitude of artefacts surviving from times past. Historians use what they term PRIMARY SOURCES as their main access to the past. Secondary sources are also available: these are sources of information provided by other historians. Primary sources are the bedrock of history. They include every conceivable type of documents: maps, treaties, churches and temple records, imperial archive documents, letters, legal records, diaries, newspapers, catalogues and even bus tickets. They can be formal or informal, private or public, serious or frivolous. Primary sources also include artefacts. Unlike science, say, history is often criticized for serving no purpose. We are unable to learn from history, it is argued, either because precisely the same circumstances as in the past cannot arise again in future, or because if sufficiently similar circumstances did arise, we would not be able to act differently. In the natural sciences we have both statements of immediate observations, reporting for instance the outcome of an experiment, and general laws from which we can derive predictions. These two kinds of statements are justified in quite different ways: observational statements by perception. The evidence, not necessarily written, which historical research is based on are the ‘sources'. Sources need not be items that go back to the time in history which is being studied, but can be texts written since then about that time: the former are called primary, and the latter secondary sources. There are two main questions that must be asked regarding primary sources. The first of these concerns their authenticity, or genuineness. Suppose that we have, for instance, a painting of a particular historical event; then the painter may have added or omitted certain details to please his customer, or to make it a better painting, he may not have been there himself and have used incomplete accounts, the painting could even be a later forgery, and so on. The other question concerns their completeness. We must bear in mind that the material available to us has already been systematically selected, in a variety of ways: we tend to know more about the upper classes of the societies we study, because it is largely their doings that were recorded, while we find many ruins in some parts of the world, little remains of the wooden structures that were more common elsewhere, and so on. On one side there are those who hold that historical explanation must be like the scientific explanation of an event: to understand an historical event, we must have a general, or ‘covering' law, so that from this law and a description of the historical situation we can deduce that the event would happen. For even where history is capable of being objective, there are problems with the ‘evidence' it is based on, as we have seen: the sources available may not be authentic, and they will certainly be incomplete. And to the extent that history is (necessarily) subjective, i.e. a matter of the position from which it is written, historical accounts or explanations are liable to the problem of bias, i.e. partiality, tendentiousness or even prejudice. The historian cannot be objective about the period, which is his subject. In this he differs (to his intellectual advantage) from its most typical ideologists, who believed that the progress of technology, ‘positive science' and society made it possible to view their present with the unanswerable impartiality of the natural scientist, whose methods they believed themselves (mistakenly) to understand. For much of the time that history has been written, the work of the historian was not thought to be particularly problematic — as long as he had the right intentions, he would just try to discover the truth, and †tell how it really was.† The first law for the historian is that he shall never dare utter an untruth. The second is that he shall suppress nothing that is true. Moreover, there shall be no suspicion of partiality in his writing, or of malice. History, then, is not, as it has so often been misdescribed, a story of successive events or an account of change. Unlike the natural scientist, the historian is not concerned with events as such at all. He is only concerned with those events, which are the outward expression of thoughts. †¦ Theory of Knowledge Bertrand Russell was a British philosopher and a mathematician who is generally recognized as one of the founders of analytic philosophy. He, like many other people was searching for proof and evidence of us- people being rational animals, whose thoughts and actions are reasonable and sensible. Reason is a way of knowing in which we build up explanations by refining independent ideas and theories in order to reach a logical conclusion or in other words we use reason to decide whether something is correct or wrong. Through observations and experiments we can prove by reason if our hypothesis was right, and by this broaden our knowledge horizons. Reason is present as much as in everyday choice making, as it is present in science, mathematics and other areas of knowledge. However reason is not always the most useful way of knowledge, for example in music and arts, as we are not robots and we also rely on our emotions and perception. So how can we gain truth by reason, when there are so many different opinions and emotions involved? Reason can help us gain knowledge, but only to a certain extent and therefore it has its strengths and weaknesses, which I am going to discuss in my essay. In science logic and reason are said to be the core element to get a valid conclusion, but there are some contradictions and exceptions to this general judgment. For example in biology, we use reason and logic to make a hypothesis, and then through several experiments or observations, we can obtain a valid and logical conclusion, which will support our hypothesis. As an example, a biology class, had to run an experiment to find out the presence of glucose and starch in two different food solutions. In two test tubes A and B, two different food solutions, which are unknown to the students, are found. The class divided into four different groups and each group had to add chemicals such as iodine for starch and benedicts solution for glucose to find out, in which test tube was each solution. If starch was present the solution had to turn from blue to black, and for glucose it had to change from blue to orange. Group 1, was successful and their one solution turned to black, proving that it has starch in it and the other turned orange demonstrating that it has glucose. Group 2 however, had a negative outcome, as both of their solutions did not change color, therefore showing that it has none of the solutions present. One of the solutions of group 3 turned green, instead of orange, therefore contradicting the hypothesis and the whole theory. By this example we see that logic and reason, has its own uncertainties and doubts. Reason can sometimes obscure our knowledge if we see something, which contradicts our initial theory. This logic is quite similar to perception, as we need to use our five senses- see, hear, touch, taste and smell to acquire a rational verdict. In music and art, I think that reason as a way of knowing has both advantages and disadvantages. We cannot express our opinion on a piece of music or a piece of art without bringing up emotion and perception. A composer cannot write music without any feelings, same as an artist cannot paint without inspiration through his senses. A piece of music however requires some basic reason. For example if a composer needs to write a concerto for a violin, he will not write a concerto for a piano, and no other instrument than a violin can replace it. This is very basic reason, but we can see that it is present in creative arts. I am an IB Art student and I know that reason has little to do with it. Making art is based mostly on emotion and on the way we feel or what we think at a certain moment. Art comes from the heart, and reason is only present when we need to know which two colors for example make purple or what do we need to do to make a canvas. Add reason Another demonstration of advantages and disadvantages of reason is present the case of superstitions. In many cultures superstitions make up a lot of beliefs that are carried throughout generations. For example it is said that it is bad luck to go forward of a black cat has passed your way. Even though I have never heard anyone claim that he or she has bad luck because of a cat passing his or her way, I would still rather prefer to avoid it, as I was brought up with this and I actually started to believe in it. Even though there is no scientific prove of this superstition and common logic experience says that this is not true, most people would still avoid it. Therefore reason can be very objective, in a way that it can differ from different cultures and dissimilar beliefs. Mathematics is the one area where reason plays a fundamental part. Reason is the basis on which mathematics is founded. Before any mathematical theorem can be taken as true, it must be backed by a reasonable mathematical proof that shows, that the answer got is correct. This type of empirical, reasonable verification shows that of all the areas of knowledge, mathematics uses reason the most. In mathematics, an answer is either wrong or right. There is no midpoint in mathematics. Without reason, all mathematical arguments would naturally fail, and so if a mathematical statement cannot be fortified with reason, the statement should be rejected. Mathematics is the only area of knowledge where every statement must be backed up by reason. Reason itself is not enough to explain such things as the origins of the universe, or right and wrong, and so reason can and should be complemented by other sources of knowledge. Reason can be used when the sense misinformed us. For example when you put a straw in water senses tell us that the straw is bent, because it looks like it, but through reason we deduce that the straw is straight. Therefore reason is more reliable than our senses and is used more effectively. For the conclusion, I should discuss whether in the end our knowledge can be obtained purely by logic and reason, or it needs the support of human emotion and perception to give us reasonable comprehension of our existence. â€Å"Man is a rational animal who always loses his temper when called upon to act in accordance with the dictates of reason,†- this is a quote by Oscar Wilde. I agree with him as I think that emotions and feelings often overtake reason, as we are more driven by our desires, fears and passion than logic and rationality. I think that pure reason cannot exist without other ways of knowledge, and has its strengths and weaknesses. Reason is valid when it is not contradicted by anyone, but can we call something rational knowledge when someone disputes it? Reason within its domain is very reliable, as for example in mathematics, you can be almost one hundred percent certain that something is true, and this is the main strength of reason. I think that in all the other areas of knowledge, reason has many weaknesses. Reason always needs input from another source and therefore can only be reliable as its source of data. In the arts, in the absence of inspiration, no great work can be done, however reason is present in the mixing of colors and proportion and so on. Science without any data has no use of reason, and is therefore unreliable. My conclusion to this essay is that reason always needs input from another source and therefore can only be reliable as its source of data. Theory of Knowledge How do we acquire our knowledge? Don’t we acquire our knowledge through our senses? We know something is round because we have seen it and we have touched it. A blind person can distinguish a sphere from a cube, because of the sense of touch. But can a blind person really know what the difference between green and purple are? Maybe, but it might be a hard one to explain because you cannot really explain what light and dark is if a blind person has not really seen these differences. The eyes might not be the true organ of sight but in my opinion it is one of the necessary things needed to acquire knowledge. But what is sight? What is knowledge? According to the Oxford Dictionary sight is defined as the faculty or power of seeing, and knowledge is information and skills acquired through experience or education. The definition of sight from the Oxford Dictionary did not connect it with the word knowledge for knowledge helps us to describe the object that we are seeing. For example, if we look at an object with our eyes without any knowledge of what is being perceived, the object that we are seeing will be just an unknown object to us. The object being perceived does not contain that much meaning to it for the lack of knowledge. So is knowledge really the true organ of sight? It is to some extent for we cannot fully comprehend what we see if we did not have the previous knowledge to describe what we see and without seeing I think it makes it a little bit harder to acquire enough knowledge to fully describe what is around us. Can knowledge be only achieved by seeing? How do blind people acquire their knowledge without their eyes? I think they gain knowledge by experience, touching and hearing. They learn things differently than people who can see because they probably create their own images of what we see. It is through knowledge of what they have experienced that they â€Å"see† what is put infront of them. For us who can see and have been seeing in our life time gain knowledge from what we see and what we have experienced. All these contribute to us gaining knowledge of the world. Perception, defined as the act or faculty of apprehending by means of the senses or of the mind. This plays a vital role in some subjects rather than others because some just require more understanding than the rest. It is important to understand what you learn before practicing. In short, our senses do give us to a certain extent knowledge and this works together with the sense of perception. Theory of Knowledge How do we acquire our knowledge? Don’t we acquire our knowledge through our senses? We know something is round because we have seen it and we have touched it. A blind person can distinguish a sphere from a cube, because of the sense of touch. But can a blind person really know what the difference between green and purple are? Maybe, but it might be a hard one to explain because you cannot really explain what light and dark is if a blind person has not really seen these differences. The eyes might not be the true organ of sight but in my opinion it is one of the necessary things needed to acquire knowledge. But what is sight? What is knowledge? According to the Oxford Dictionary sight is defined as the faculty or power of seeing, and knowledge is information and skills acquired through experience or education. The definition of sight from the Oxford Dictionary did not connect it with the word knowledge for knowledge helps us to describe the object that we are seeing. For example, if we look at an object with our eyes without any knowledge of what is being perceived, the object that we are seeing will be just an unknown object to us. The object being perceived does not contain that much meaning to it for the lack of knowledge. So is knowledge really the true organ of sight? It is to some extent for we cannot fully comprehend what we see if we did not have the previous knowledge to describe what we see and without seeing I think it makes it a little bit harder to acquire enough knowledge to fully describe what is around us. Can knowledge be only achieved by seeing? How do blind people acquire their knowledge without their eyes? I think they gain knowledge by experience, touching and hearing. They learn things differently than people who can see because they probably create their own images of what we see. It is through knowledge of what they have experienced that they â€Å"see† what is put infront of them. For us who can see and have been seeing in our life time gain knowledge from what we see and what we have experienced. All these contribute to us gaining knowledge of the world. Perception, defined as the act or faculty of apprehending by means of the senses or of the mind. This plays a vital role in some subjects rather than others because some just require more understanding than the rest. It is important to understand what you learn before practicing. In short, our senses do give us to a certain extent knowledge and this works together with the sense of perception.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Conflict Can Have Tragic Consequences for Ordinary People Essay

As humans, conflict pervades every aspect of our lives; it is inevitable. However, conflict varies on a scale. With a minor conflict being an argument between two friends, which therefore has a minor outcome that soon becomes forgotten, or it can be a severe conflict, such as war, which results in a large life-changing result. The most tragic consequence of war is the impact on innocent parties. The brutalities in history, which ordinary people have faced as a result of conflict resulting into war, are repulsive. People caught in such conflicts face death, mutilation, rape, starvation, homelessness, poverty, disease and the breakdown of families. Even more of an act of violence is that these people who are affected are not even involved in the politics of why the war is occurring. They are simply innocent victims of war who must face the consequences of their countries actions, not their own. Because of Japans attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 which killed 2,403 people (68 of which were civilians) America retaliated and decided to put an end to the war by forcing Japan to surrender. To do so, American forces, dropped two nuclear bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This attack eventuated to the death of an estimated 200,000 Japanese civilians. Racial, ideological, political and religious conflicts that arise in countries often result in war, with many innocent people being killed in the process of fighting over who is ‘right’. The Holocaust, which was a result of many societies who envied or distrusted Jewish people, and Hitler, who exploited this hatred, secretly attempting genocide in the disguise of subjugating the race which resulted in the death of just under six million Jews. Although the Holocaust is not regarded as a conflict of war because there was no fighting apart from in a few cases, it is considered a racial conflict because of the mass murdering of innocent people who didn’t do anything. Everyone around the world is affected by wars and conflicts because it destroys homes and also drives up the cost of living. The cost of certain items has gone up because the cost of producing them has increased but the labour has decreased due to many being killed or sent into the army. In addition, citizens are affected by having their family members sent off to fight in the war. The change in income can be positive or negative, depending on what job you left behind. For some, being called back into active duty means leaving a 6 figure salary behind. For others, it’s a chance to save up and/or pay off some debts. Another detail often forgotten is that some young families have babies on the way when the father is sent off to war, or very young children. They change so quickly! The fathers are deprived of the joy of watching them grow up, and the children don’t have the advantage of having both parents around to raise them. Conflict created by wars have tragic consequences for ordinary civilians, it could be a positive or negative consequence.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Budget Airlines

In both Europe and North America, established airlines are desperately cutting costs in order to compete with the increasing number of budget airlines. However, it is highly unlikely that these airlines will ever match the cost efficiency of Southwest, Jetblue or Ryanair. What opportunities are there for established airlines to improve their competitive position through differentiation strategies? Make specific proposals for how established airlines can differentiate their customer offerings more effectively. Few other industries generate the amount and intensity of attention given to airlines, not only among its participants but from government policy makers, the media, and almost anyone who has an anecdote about a particular air travel experience. Since the economic deregulation of airlines in the United States in 1978 the questions of cost efficiency, operating profitability and competitive behavior have become the dominant issues facing airline management. In early 2001 the combination of reduced business travel budgets and substantial cutbacks in airline passenger service quality led more business travelers to look for alternatives to paying premium air fares – namely low-fare airlines for business travel. Southwest, Jetblue and Ryanair are very efficiently run airlines that offer customers consistently cheap airfares in the mature airline industry. Over the past 10 years, the established airlines have attempted to differentiate their services to compete with these companies in numerous ways. However, while such differentiation has proved critical to competitive advantage in business class, for economy fliers, differentiation initiatives have met limited market response. Attempts to increase legroom, offer â€Å"economy-plus† seats, superior in-flight entertainment and achieving superior punctuality have met little market response from customers. The only differentiation strategy that has proved wildly successful is frequent flier programs and services offered to first- and business-class travelers (Grant text Ch. 13). A critical question for the established airlines is whether any differentiation characteristics are capable of creating more value for customers than their costs to the airline. I think it is important to examine the airline passengers’ value chain of activities to identify opportunities for creating customer value. Creating opportunities are likely to be improvements in the form of time savings and increased convenience. Legacy carriers simply have to maximize efficiency, either by reducing frills or by providing a good value for premium product. They should keep costs at a minimum to reduce price, offer better schedules, service and faster, more reliable reservations and check-in systems.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Personal Ethic statement Essay

†¢Do you agree with the results of your Work Culture Preferences activity? Does it match with what you considered your ideal work culture? Yes, I agree with the results of my Work Culture Preferences activity. The result matches with my considered ideal wok culture. My result was being High powered, and teamwork centered, and expert. I agree with being High powered because I like to try different jobs and learning new skills. These skills will help me become more competitive in a demanding job market. Most demanding jobs are teamwork centered and require being in the creative atmosphere. I’m glad that I received this result to see my strong points in the work culture. This will help me what to expect in a career that I’m looking forward to. †¢Do you think there is a relationship between effective study habits and techniques and being successful in those work cultures? Explain your answers. Yes, I think there is a relationship between effective study habits and techniques of being successful in those work cultures by being successful in those cultures. Study habits and techniques are all part of note taking; they are extremely helpful in remembering important detail about a particular subject. By using effective study habits and techniques, can tremendously help you when taking quiz or test. While taking a test, you can remember from the top of your head of what you had wrote down for studied to answer that question. In work culture, it will help you memorize your work procedure and guidelines. †¢What was your ethical perspective as identified by the ELI, including your blind spot, strengths, weaknesses, and values? My ethical perspective as identified by the ELI was prioritizing the value of autonomy over equality. My concern is to protect individual rights and ensure everyone is treated fairly. I believe that my good is good enough, leaving problems unresolved for everyone else. By doing this, I’m too focused on good motive and don’t see the problems in my method. My strengths are able to make responsible choices that benefit many different individuals  at the same time. Thinking through problem carefully and research options to find the one that will fulfill my duties. My values are to make sure my actions are good for the community as a whole. †¢How do personal ethics play a role in academics? How might they play a role in the workplace? Personal ethics play a role in academics by setting an atmosphere of truthfulness and trust. This help to ensure every decision we make is one that upholds values. They are the decision that make and must continue to lure of the easy way out, by making ourselves better. Personal ethics also play a role in workplace by keeping our work or ideas original to us. This challenges corporation to translate their mission statement into every employee. Leading corporation to higher performance for business and society. In addition, promote employee and customer trustworthy relation for truthful business and services to the company. †¢What connection is there to your ethical perspective and your ideal work culture? The connection within my ethical perspective and work culture is they both require fairness and equality in both. The support of each other as a team benefits and the success of the workplace. It would also increase the want to be at the workplace and part of the team. Creating an environment that encourages people to express opinions and creative atmosphere. These connections promote unity for subordinate, co-worker, and supervisors to work and focus on task at hand. It both encourages people to share and express their opinions. Increasing likelihood of rapid promotion and other benefits to each.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Walmart and Employee Job satisfaction Research Paper

Walmart and Employee Job satisfaction - Research Paper Example Therefore, it has become a challenge for the human resource department and the management to make sure that the employees of the organization are motivated so that they are able to produce good results for the organization. This paper is about Wal-Mart which employs more than 2,000,000 employees all over America. The organization is facing employee has been facing employee dissatisfaction and low morale among its employee in several states in which it has its retail outlets. Employees are not happy with Wal-Mart because they say that it does not treat its employees. Workplace morale is essential for productive performance which is crucial for a company to succeed, but pitiable management results in unconstructive attitudes and performance at work (Sherman & Chappell, 1998). Low Morale Employees are frequently absent and do not like to come to work because they suffer from low morale because they feel that Wal-Mart is not appreciative of their hard work and their intense efforts at th e workplace. This absenteeism has caused undue pressure on other employees who have to do the work of two or three persons without any tangible benefits. Wal-Mart employees are not properly trained or empowered to handle the extra work and pressure which has caused low morale in most retail outlets (Latimer, Hempson, & Kendrick, 2011). Low morale of employees at Wal-Mart has caused employees to squabble and fight among themselves. Moreover, management of the Wal-Mart has not been successful in addressing this problem because they too lack the training to implement fair dispute resolutions. Despite Wal-Mart’s claim of 86% employee satisfaction, the attitude, body language and work performance of the employees do not substantiate this claim (Niesing, 2008). Low Wages Although Wal-Mart is one of the largest retailer’s in the world, its employees are among the lowest anywhere in America. Because of very low salaries and benefits Wal-Mart employees occasionally organize foo d drives for themselves as their extremely low wages create great hardships, and they are unable to meet expenses. Naturally when employees cannot make ends meet and are under constant financial pressure, then morale takes a nosedive. Morale had been quite low at Wal-Mart since the 1970’s when prices of all essential items registered a very sharp rise (Feenstra, 1998). Because of the low wages at Wal-Mart, the employees are forced to get government assistance in the form of food stamps and other subsidies. The wages paid by the corporation are not enough for even a single person to support himself, so it is not possible that a typical Wal-Mart employee could support a family without government assistance (Goetz & Swaminathan, 2006). Forbidden to form Unions Forming of Unions is explicitly forbidden for the employees for collective negotiations of their demands. Wal-Mart has issued statements that 86% of its employees are quite satisfied and happy with their jobs. If this is a fact, then Wal-Mart should allow the formation of unions without aggressive management interference. . When seeking employment at any retail outlet, the applicants are well aware of the fact that even discussion about unionization can get them instantly terminated. Despite this, with all the criticism that people have about the organization, it is an established fact that for any Wal Mart store that

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Summary Marketing Plan Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Summary Marketing Plan - Term Paper Example This marketing plan will first make a situational analysis for the cafà ©. In the situational analysis, the overall picture in terms of trends, statistics, size, growth and competition will be discussed. Also, a SWOT analysis will be performed for identifying the strength, weakness, opportunities and threats of the current industry. The report will also give an insight into the current competitors in the industry. A comprehensive explanation of the target market and product positioning is discussed. Based on all these analysis, a marketing plan is charted out for the cafà ©. Cafà © Gam Sung will be located at Sunnyside neighborhood in New York City. Sunnyside is located in the western portion of New York City. Sunnyside contains a total population of 29,506 people. Though majority of the population are Americans, a larger portion is also constituted of people from almost 30 countries. Therefore, Sunnyside is a place with very diverse cultural characteristics. The median income of the region is $37,962. Majority of the population in the area are of the age group of 25 – 39 years. Clearly mentioning, they constitute up to 32% of the Sunnyside population. The next bigger group is 40 – 64 years old forming around 30%. Teenage people of 19 – 24 years old form 7% of the population. The majority of the employed people are from the industries of retail/wholesale, professional, manufacturing, finance, education/health and arts/entertainment. Around 44% of the employed population falls into the income category of $30,000 - $74,999. 40% fall below $30,000. Only a meager 1% has an annual income of higher than 150,000. Sunnyside is a market with a highly growing potential for coffee shops. The major opportunity in the market is that it contains a considerable portion of young population. The population of age groups 19 – 39 years is of great potential for the business.

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Information Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Information Management - Essay Example This report will examine how senior managers can improve information management within an organization. Information management is an umbrella term, which encompasses people, process, technology and content. Improving information management is driven by the need to improve upon the business processes. Because it encompasses all the systems and processes within an organization, it is essential that managers at all levels communicate effectively. With the growth of the electronic media, the problem of managing information has compounded. There are a large number of information systems today, which lack co-ordination or integration. Information that flows into a company is quite often out-dated, lacks in quality and consistency. The senior management normally does not offer support in managing this information. Added to these are internal politics, changing corporate policies and strategies, and diverse business needs. Investment in information management has also been lacking, as no tangible benefits are visible as in other business processes. People: A strong leadership can help create an effective information management strategy (Robertson, 2005). A clear vision about the outcomes expected from the system is necessary to formulate the right strategy. They must be able to identify and prioritize the business requirements. Senior managers are responsible to ensure that managers at all levels have a clear understanding of the project, its implementation, and the benefits. Technology alone would not suffice unless it is backed by the right managers to implement it. Staff may need to be trained in the application of the information system. The managers also need to recognize the need to invest in developing and maintaining an effective information management system. Technology: Selecting the right technology itself is the first and most important task. No single application of project can resolve all the problems connected