Wednesday, April 3, 2019
Thailands Tourism Industry In The Globalization Era Tourism Essay
Siameselands ecstasying carry labor In The Globalization Era cristalerry EssayCHAPTER 1At present, that the sphere is in the globalization era which ca theatrical roles more(prenominal) aggressive emulation on businesses in several regions. This apologize more ab erupt concepts of unlike countries in the dethaw realism or capitalistic universe of dis human body where at that place is the centre in the western countries those focus on study. As countries use incremental strategies to maintain economic, political, and military power and influence of the capitalistic world (Hongthongkham, 1976). tourerry today has become an pains that is nowadays crucial to the world economy, it is now a wide held view that in al close any country tourerry has grown, and has become a core product in the international trade of those counties. holiday stringrry now rates between 1-3 out of the top 10 key industries glob all(prenominal)y this manufacture is now decisive to econo mic prosperity (http//thai. touristrythailand.org/about-thailand/economy/, 2010). Siameseland has a signifi female genitalst tourism intentness which has the potential, with Government policies and assistance, to be developed much more this emersion for siamese connectionland provides an slight source of foreign currencies. Since ancient successions mankind has explored and chokeled and now with modern technologies especially in transportation and communication, and an increasingly mobile world population there tail be almost limitless growth. This growth has changed the way business is being d iodin, from clusters of techniques to a more specialized prep bedness organization. With market integration now called tourism diligence is now a very chief(prenominal) factor in the economies of numerous countries today (Nuntajak, 2010).The tourism industry of Tailand has change dramatically and is now a major industry in world tourism. Over the past decade, international holi day chooser arrivals in Thailand confound grown faster over the past 10 categorys, from 8.58 one thousand thousand in 1999 to 14.09 million arrivals in 2009 by the holidaymaker Authority of Thailand or TAT (2010). Thailand has been gaining an increasing market sh argon of international touring cars. During that level, the tourism industry has been one of the great probative sectors for economic growth and each yr there were each touring cars spending criterions, at least 3,000.00 baht per soulfulness per day when tourers come to Thailand (TAT 2009).For Thailand, the rate of international holidaymakers are increasing all year, a number of factors are responsible for tourism growth and development of the tourism industry in Thailand over several(predicate) goals, Owing to the friendly, welcoming, and sleep loving nature of the Thai lot. There are many reasons wherefore Thailand appeals to wealthy tourers of foreign and different cultural destinations who co nfirm cash in ones chipsled to Thailand, to sleep to transmither a unique and fulfilling experience. An important part of the Thailands tourism industry triumph is because of the physical geographic diversity of Thailand (TAT 2010).Due to Phuket, a part of Thailand, is nigh other world class destination. This place is serenely beautiful and is well know for the beaches and the secular seas and also one of the top ten diving destinations in the world. There are many activities available around Phuket such as, aqualung diving, snorkeling, kayaking, parasailing, fishing, surfing beach, jet skis and the place for honeymooners. ecumenically Speaking, international tourers are direction non only on the product, alone also on the people who work for the hospitality and the tourism industry can go by the dependable knowledge to phaetons.Therefore, there are many international tourers increasing arrivals to Phuket. gibe to the statistical reports by Department of tourerry (2006), the number of international tourists arrivals in Phuket was 1.2 million in 2008 and 1.1 million in 2009 and is now a significant share in the Thai market.The statistics showed the number of international tourists that generate revenue, prosperity to the local anaesthetic and more importantly to create a multi- avocational occupations, such as interpreter, translator, waitresses, airline officers, including tourist imparts who close with international tourists all through the time they are stay in Thailand (tourism.go.th, 2010).Moreover, tourist devours are the personnel grouping having roles in encouraging and supporting tourism. They are the cultural diplomat because they recognise tourists about various stories on society, customs, cultural arts, economy, and politics (Ritthirak, 2002).Therefore, tourist fades are a electric chargeer which creates a lot of benefits to the country. But in fact, 22, 732 tourist turn overs apply for the tourist scarper licenses fr om touring car work and Tourism stemma Registration Office on December 31, 2001. A tourist break away may have ability to use more than 1 spoken communication (Ritthirak, 2002).Before applying for the tourist require licenses, those tourist drags have to pass the part creating process in order to have knowledge, ability, righteous, and mandate of pass on. In practice, Tourism Authority of Thailand coordinates and provides phaeton Guide Training Standard Curriculum for capital punishment of educational institutes in the university level all over the country. The standard course of instruction contains radical knowledge subjects which are necessary for working. After receiving the training, tourist pull outs can bring the evidence to apply for the tourist incline licenses from phaeton Guides and Tourism Business Registration Office of Tourism Authority of Thailand.In the stock the status of the tourist occupy was not recognized. Supaporn Makjeang mentioned in Touris t Guide Principles (1996) that anyone could be a tourist exit if he or she could tattle incline and it was not necessary for them to receive high education. It was not until the Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) was founded in 1977 and the headmaster tourist talent scout training course was created that professional tourist takes were developed. The training courses have been raced until now and expanded to other major provinces. Moreover, the Professional Tourist Guide Association of Thailand was founded on July twenty-ninth 1975 as the center of all tourist glide bys (Tourist Guide Association Thailand, 1992).Nowadays, the basic knowledge of the tourist guide is mentioned as the basic requisite unpack from the fluency of foreign languages. This policy makes the university graduates lay down more jobs. Travel agencies invariably employ the tourist guides who finish the training courses from the institute guaranteed by the Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). This sti mulates people who are interest in the tourist guide occupation to finish the training forrader the job application. Moreover, roughlywhat political sympathies places, especially the Grand Palace and the royal temples, allow only the tourist guides who already passed the training course and have tourist guide licenses to operate the tour (Khummanon, 1996).The expansion of tourism industry and the increasing of the number of tourist guides in Thailand, caused some immoral competitions among tourist guides. They try to do every involvement to get their own benefits regardless of the rules and their major duty. For example, do not do their job as best as they can, do not fabricate upkeep to their clients or take their clients to the shopping area where they received the commission, trying to stockpile the tourists to believe that the tidys and services are of high qualities with fair prices. In the case of jewelry, some tourist guides s attending the color mirror are the pos tulateed stone, some said gold but its only the metal transgression with gold or said the dog bones as tiger bones (Lookdamnoen, 1989).Lookdamnoen also paint a pictures that the branch place where the travelers arrive in capital of Thailand, Bangkok International aerodrome, there are some people trying to have tendered place where the tourists can meet upon arrival and claim that they are the officers of the airport and favor some services, such as accommodation, sightseeing, excursion and transfer services. They advise some information with documents for tours and excursions with unfair price. In additional, the bad manners of tourist guides such as shouting, crapping to call tourist groups, demo boredom when some tourists came late for the appointment because of the mis actualiseing of language or any mistake, showing anger when tourists ask for some explained information, etc (Charoenmuan, 1992).The Tourism Authority of Thailand in the assembly of 1/1995 mentioned the touri st guides behaviors that ruin the reputation of their occupation as followsForcing tourists to leverage some optional tour by deceiving or intimidating the touriststo ask that tour beside the original deal with the tour company.Taking tourist to the duplicity or unfair price shops so that they receive tip orcommission from the shop.Requesting some tips or special payments by convincing the tourists to be sympatheticwith the get alongment that has no benefit.4. Taking the tourists passports or air tickets until the tourists pay some additional costs.At the conference of 1/1996 there are some other behaviors that caused the bad reputation and the loss of the honor of the code of ethics as mentioned in the second Ministerial Regulations (1996) of the present of the Tourist Business and Guide 2008.1 Explaining or informing some unavailing or in remediate information that causes harm to thenation, religion, and the monarchy.2 Not playing his own duties as a tourist guide who should be have-to doe with with the benefitof tourists as the first priority.3 Being dishonest, seeking some improper benefit or forcing tourists to do something theyare unwilling to do.4 Disobeying the moral standard.5 Not believing in the local tradition and regulation of each travelling place.Therefore, the above problems that can say the causes of Thai tourist guides unsuitable behaviors are based on the loss of their moral of the rules and they forgot the enormousness of their own duties, though they are educated from acceptable institutes as professional tourist guides. Therefore, the assumption of these is the lack of the code of ethics that is the initiation of all behaviors and caused people to do the right or suitable things, concerning the corporate benefits, and feel responsible for society. All these can be taken as the principle or rules of the suitable performance that the researcher is interested in the ethics of Thai tourist guides and the ways to solve them that can be applied to be the basic idea and set up the professional tourist guides effectively.Related LiteratureTour guiding is a highly regarded profession today and being a tourist guide comes with great responsibilities as lives of people while on holiday are entrusted in tourists care. Therefore, it is of full of life importance that tourist guides strictly follow and adhere to the tourist guide standards and professional tourist guides code of ethics in order to promote ethics and high moral behavior in the perspectives of international tourists who are travelling in Phuket.This study will look at cerebrate fields of business ethics, some ethical theories, moral, and tourist guides ethics in Thailand. Therefore writings review covers the followingThe importance of tourist guideTourist guide situation in ThailandClassification of tourist guide in ThailandQualifications of tourist guide courtesy of tourist guide authority and responsibilities of tourist guideThe Characteristics of t ourist guideCode of ethics of tourist guideBusiness ethicsNormative ethicsMoral hypothesisVirtue theoryDuty theory1.2.10 Related research1.2.1 The importance of tourist guideA tourist guide is a significant component of the travel industry as he has the sole duty of taking care of the tourist including all travel put inments of providing information and explanations (Pongsabuth, 1997). In addition, Supaporn Makjeang in the Principle of Tourist Guide (1996) mentioned that tourists are strangers to their destinations because they are not familiar with the local people, cultural and custom. When travelling alone without a tourist guide, they side problems and challenges and in most cases land up wasting their money and time. Therefore, with time, tourists have come to favor having a tourist guide for their trips.The experimental condition tourist guide is used in the travel business with on ease of the understand. However, academics have defined the concept of tourist guides more i n terms of rules and responsibilities. A numeral of terms are use to explain those whose right it is to take care of and to inform of tourists. Courier was the term most worldwidely applied to describe tourist guide , today a courier can be called tour captain, tour concomitant, tour manager, and tourist guide (Jafari, 2000).During the 19th century Thomas Cook became the first travel company that operated group tours by train to Loughborough and other places in atomic number 63 (Kruttawacho, 2008). This involve tourist guides who could explain and guide tourist on these trips.The Tourism Authority of Thailand in cooperation with Chulalongkorn University in 1961 (Mr. Sumonchart Sawaddikul, a professor at the mental faculty of Arts), designed a training course training on professional tourist guides. The first tourist guides student for this course were the third year and upper skill of Arts students at Chulalongkorn University. Thereafter the course gained popularity and intere sted student began to in role. After Chulalongkorn University offered the course for 13 years, Silapakorn University implemented the same course for the first time in 1973 (Khummanon, 1996). In addition, the Humanities Faculty of Kasetsart University started the same course for its own students and opened a new tourism course for the graduated who were still unemployed.Nowadays the course has become widely recognize and other University as the Rajaphat and the Rangsit, ect. have capitalized on its importance and have started offering it to the public public.Due to tourism growth the government established the take on to pass a bill on standards and procedures for tourist guides. The bill stipulated that the Tourism Authority of Thailand be the support and controlling body for the tourist business and tourist guides, by making sure that they meet the standards required by law (that each tourist guide have a tourist guide license) as set out in the Tourist Business and Tourist Gui de Act 2008 of Thailand (Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2010). The tourist guide licenses are issued after a person completes the training course arrange by the government service. Each course requires different levels of education. The qualifications stipulation is that one has to be a Thai citizen, aged 20 years or older, with nigh(a) written and spoken Thai.Tourist guide situation in ThailandIncreasing number of registered guides in Thailand demons that working as a tourist guide has become a popular occupational group in the tourism industry. The language requirement in the number of tourist guides in Thailand, (see get into 2.1). One reason of tourist guides increasing because students who studied in tourism industry course when their graduated TAT approves the tourist guide license. Therefore, the number of registered guides is quite high.Figure 2.1 Number of tourist guide license requirement and approval during January 2010 to November 2010Source Tourist Business and Guide Registration Office, oculus (2010)From the implementation year of the Tourist Business and Tourist Guide Act of 2008 until November 2010, there were 42,075 registration tourist guides in Thailand and 35,010 for General guide and 7,065 for particularized guide. Most tourist guide (30,781) was in English language (see parry 2.2)Figure 2.2 Tourist guide classification by languagesJToonioWork_TWitoon20 02 54figure 2.2.jpgSource Tourist Business and Guide Registration Office, Centre (2010)Classification of tourist guide in ThailandThere are two main types of tourist guides the general guide and the specific guide, asfollowingsGeneral guide a tour guide who has knowledge about general tours to places aroundthe kingdom, able to let out Thai and also convey information in other languages to tourists.General guide (Foreign) silver bronze card color, a tour guide who can direct tours for Thai and foreign tourists all over the nation in Thailand.General guide (Thai) golden bronze card col or, a tour guide who can conducttours specifically only for Thai tourists all over the kingdom in Thailand. particularized guide a tour guide who has specialized knowledge e.g. history, archeology,trekking, etc. to give the information to tourists with specific interests. specialized guide (Foreign-specific area) pink card color, a tour guide who canconduct tours for Thai and foreign tourists only for provinces listed on the card and those in the adjacent areas.Specific guide (Thai-specific area) light blue card color, a tourist guide whocan conduct tours specifically for Thai tourists only using the provinces listed on the card and the provinces of adjacent areas.Specific guide (Forest trekking) green card color, a tourist guide who canconduct tours for Thai and foreign tourists specifically in the forest trekking areas.Specific guide (Art cultural) red card color, a tourist guide who conducttours for Thai and foreign tourists specifically on areas concerning history, archeology, art, cultural, or Thai literature all over the kingdom in Thailand.Specific guide (Marine) orangeness card color, a tourist guide who can conducttours for Thai and foreign tourists specifically about history, archeology, art, cultural, or Thai literature to tours all over the kingdom of Thailand.Specific guide (Seashore) yellow card color, a tourist guide who can conducttours for Thai and foreign tourists in the areas by the sea or on islands, with the distance from the coast to the tourist attractions of no more than 40 nautical miles.Specific guide (Natural destinations) gallant card color, a tourist guide whocan conduct tours for Thai and foreign tourists only on the natural attractions printed on the card.2.8 Specific guide (Local cultural) brown card color, a tourist guide who can conduct tours for Thai and foreign tourists on the culture, history, geography, and archeology particularly within the local cultural attractions named on the card only.Moreover, there are three kin ds of tourist guides an on-site guide, a city guide and aspecialized guide (Mancini, 1996).1.2.4 Qualifications of tourist guideWannathanom (2003) mentions that being a tourist guide, one should have some specific qualifications since it is a career for those who have to interact with many people from different cultures and different behaviors. Eighteen attributes which are of importance to the tourist guides were identified, which are Klamsaengsai (2006) mentioned thatGood constitution onwards taking care of others, the tourist guide has to initiallyconcentrate on his or herself, especially with regards to jazzyliness and general neatness.Human relations this is about the ability to impress tourists and to create friendshipswith their automatically.Be a knowledgeable person the tourist guide should be well-read about the destinationand related topics, and possess a broad and cabalistic knowledge for the benefits of the tourists.Eloquence in the career of a tourist guide canno t be avoided because verbalcommunication is one tool for achieving success.Perceptiveness good tourist guides should be able to notice and memorizesurroundings quicker than tourists, since some notices can be useful for the tourist guide in answering popular questions from tourists.Service mentality this qualifying is most important for tourist guide who works in theservice industry. Tourist guides need to have the spirit of being a service provider to make others happy instead of doing the work just for money or fugitive experiences.Travel Experience the more travel experience they have the more confident the touristguide will be.Punctuality High responsibility one big responsibility of the tourist guide is to takecare of all tourists, all throughout their traveling, thereof tourist guides cannot abandon their duties of feel after the tourist. Punctuality is one significant thing that the tourist guide who acts as a tour leader needs to respect.Patience the tourism industry ca n be called a people based industry where twodemand and supply are mainly related to individuals with different characteristics. If there is pressure from tourists or other problems, tourist guides have to finish themselves.Intelligence this does not think of being a genius but tourist guides have to be consciousof every situation and so that everything goes smoothly.Sense of humor not exactly like a comedian, but tourist guides should have sometalent in sharing jokes and general information.Good mentality and good wellness in tourist guides, it is a hard based type of worktaking care of a group of tourists. Tourist guides constantly have limited time to relax, therefore they should take care of themselves as well.Good memory besides recognizing tourist information, tourist guides essential try toremember. Then, they can call tourists by their correct name and making a tourist impressionLeadership in conducting tours, tourists always believe that the tourist guide is thehead or the leader of the tour who can help them in every difficulty. Tourist guides should be able to control the group.Honesty this is the quality needed for every career including that of the tourist guidewho have to take care of tourists, follow the itinerary, or recommend good shops to tourists without cheating.Foreign Language in case of incoming or outbound tours, proficiency in foreignlanguages, especially English is one important attribute for tourist guides to achieve in communicating with foreign tourists and to make the tour go smoothly.Be enthusiastic as being a leader of the group, tourist guides need to be busy andreactive anytime to make tourists feel confident.Problem solving ability for some(prenominal) predicable and unpredictable problems, touristguides are the heroes in the eyes of tourists, so they have to use their experience and their talent to solve the problem.Referring to H.Q. Zhang, I. Chow (2004) conducted to assess tourist guide performance that service qu ality of tourist guide should/should be or has as followingsPunctuality susceptibility to solve problemsKnowledge of the destinationHonesty and trustworthinessKnowledge of information about safety regulations magnate to deliver the service promised in itineraryPolitenessBeing good at presentation skillsWell trained exponent to briefing visitors on daily itineraryAbility to respect for customerAbility in communicating in foreign languagesAbility to being friendlinessAbility to general friendly atmosphereAbility to neat and tidy mienAbility to always being available for helpAbility to salaried attention to detailAbility to informing visitors about destinations customsAbility to introducing reliable shopsAbility to sense of humorAccording to Hall mentions that in Handbook of Professional Tour Management (1993)the tourist guides should have some qualifications that make an advantage trip as followsThe ability to attract prospects the tourist guide should be a corroboratory sales fac tors, some travelers want a status symbol, and security. Tourist guide should be able to subordination and control the group by the follow factors.Knowledge of the area tourist guide should knowledge of historical place and have been there before when the tourist guide speak with more empower to advice facilities and attractions, to assess the period of travel days, and to remember and handle the possible problems.First aid skills tourist guide must be prudent about any medical examination burdens. And another skills as artificial respiration, CPR, water safety, and first echelon first aid are important. Having someone available in these areas to provide the convenient thing to tourist.Forcefulness and decisiveness tourist guide should have able to manage people and decision making. This is no job for an unsteady, timid personality.A positive outlook tourist guide should be an optimist and optimism must be do reveal, definite maturity is essential, enabling them to maintain a pe rspective to surpass this with confidence.Honesty and loyalty tourist guide should have moral must be practiced on behalf of the tourist guide, no cheating the tourist. This is both unfair and unwise, and ultimately reflects on the escort.Assertiveness tourist guide had collapse possess self-assurance, self-pride, and a certain amount of ego. When a receptionist insists there are fully single rooms as promised by the vouchers, tourist guide must be stable. Get me a supervisor this does not mean being loud and abusive, or acting tough that it mean exhibiting national strength and resolution. It means insisting on the rights of the tourists.A claim manner the best tourist guide do not panic, even internally. They are able to think clearly when riot threatens.A warm personality tourist guide must be a bit of the peremptory officer in the tour, while establishing leadership credentials, must still communicate a sunny disposition, flash that ready amile, and reveal an enthusiastic. Tourists expect their escort be lively, gifted with attractive voices, and having that essential sense of humor.A clean and neat appearance tourists can afford to look casual or untidy, but tourist guide present a perpetually appearance. Tourists oddment how he or she can keep looking fresh.Good health tourist guide should be reasonable a good health, free from weaken complaints, and blesses with a reserve of power. Tourist guide must always be up and stay ahead of their passengers who wake up first and sometimes the last to bed. Even when the escort is not feeling in top form. Tourist guide should have ability to bounce adventure from the head cold or upset stomach, along with the power to persevere. tractability tourist guide should have ability to change directions when they superpower face with equipment breakdowns, failure in communication, disagreeable and troublesome passengers, illness, natural disasters, transportation delays, and so on.Anticipation tourist guide figures out in advance everything that might go wrong and tries to insure against this occur. That means frequent conversations with the bus number one wood or cruise personnel, advance phone calls, a survey of facilities before leading in the groupNegative qualities the thing that the tourist guide should acknowledge tourist do not want the tourist guide who are dishonest, who are congenitally lazy, whose manner is abrasive, who are frightened and unstable, and who have no talent for managing others.Therefore, there is not yet concluded rather than well-designed to give all conclusions of thetourist guides qualifications. In what it mostly depends on governments tourism policys development and adaptation of each countryManners of tourist guideManners and ethics of tourist guides is their verbal behavior, interaction and the best practices of tourist guides in order to maintain prestige of the professional status, and professional tourist guides who make a profession of honor which has be en respected as representatives of the country and the Thai people (Makchang, 1996).Tourist guides are responsible the full time and not leave tourists on their own.Integrity to tourists do to not lose the faithfulness tourists benefits such as, taking thetourists to buy only at shops where tourist guides get more commission with no regard for the quality of the product.Tourist guides should understand that they are in the position of service providers totourists and not show unlike reactions to tourists when tourists do not perform according to schedule.Tourist guides should have an intellectual of the desires and needs of their tourist.They should also give equal attention to everyone, and maintain harmony.Tourist guides should have compassion, A desire for others to be happy the purpose oftourism is to help as tourists want to be happy and enjoy travel that tourist guides can willingly provide to tourists.