Monday, April 1, 2019
Post Colonial Society: Hamza Alvi
Post compound Society Hamza AlviIn his influential article on the sound out in slip compound orderliness, Hamza Alvi argues that the original base of the post colonial fix apparatus lies in the class forces existing in the colonial era Metropole. The task colonial offer apparatus was to pendant all the endemic classes ( natural bourgeois, the Metropolitan neo-colonist bourgeoisie and the landed masses) in the colony. It did not rest on any of these classes. On the contrary, the colonial power mildewal highly veritable military and bureaucratism to control these classes, thus the state apparatus was over create.He further argues that if a colony has a weak and underdeveloped indigenous bourgeoisie, it will be unable at the moment of independence to subordinate the relatively highly developed colonial state apparatus by which the metropolitan power had exercised dominion over it. As an alternative, a modernistic convergence of interests of three competing propertied classe s will emerge. Under these circumstances, the bureaucratic-military oligarchy, that has a app bent relative autonomy, would play a government agency of mediator among these classes and will defer a top position in the hierarchy of post colonial state. As a result, the state apparatus acquires relatively autonomous piece and is not simply the instrument of any of these classes. Conversely, the demands and interests persist no thirster contradictory.Since, this idea was proposed by keeping in mind the semipolitical kinetics of post colonial societies of Pakistan and Bangladesh, therefore, my contention is to coerce arguments in light of political and social changes in these societies. To draw the reference of bureaucratism and military in the colonial era, I will rely on Hamza Alvis accounts and lectures of Dr, Yaqoob K. Bangash.Bureaucracy and military during Colonial eraHamza Alvi mentions that in colonial India the colonial power established the powerful institutions of b ureaucracy and military to subordinate other three bourgeois classes. Therefore, the state structure of India was overdeveloped. This rhetoric is somehow correct in get a line of bureaucracy, as it was the main source of policy making and issue resolution.The solid ground behind the supremacy of bureaucracy was that the colonial apparatus ensured the priority bureau of bureaucracy in solving the day to day issues of the masses- therefore, the masses accept their authority. The other possible rea word of honor could be the psychological one as the politicians used to blame the bureaucrats in front of public to hide their avow failures- so, the masses accepted the quality power of the bureaucracy.He assigns with military the akin section in colonial state apparatus as he assigns with bureaucracy. However, the modern researches show that the military, in prototypal half of the 20th ascorbic acid, was not as powerful as portrayed by Alvi. In-fact, the military had no role in decision making as most of the policies were supply by either parliament or bureaucracy. Moreover, the masses did not greet the dominance of military in the state apparatus. Besides, with the beginning of the 20th century the numbers of military personnels in the Indian colonial army were dramatically reduced.Therefore, it is plausible to say that the Hamza Alvi miscalculated the role of military in colonial state apparatus. Therefore, it can be assumed that if the state apparatus was overdeveloped than it would have been interruptly overdeveloped. In the next section, I will investigate, is there was continuity in the role of the bureaucracy? If not, then under which circumstances the military and bureaucracy took control of the state apparatus?To answer these questions I will draw a chronology of typesetters cases in post colonial Pakistan with the suspensor of Hamza Alvis and Dr. Ejaz Hussains accounts.Bureaucratic-military oligarchy and Pakistan Islamic League, as being th e vanguard of the movement for national independence, inherited the mantle of legitimacy. The Muslim League initially provided the faade of parliamentary government. However, Muslim League leaned heavily on the stature and authority of its leader, Quaid-e Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, who died soon after independence. Soon, it lost its bases and started to break up dramatically. As a result, the powerful inherited bureaucracy took a primaeval position. Even during his lifetime Jinnah preferred bureaucratic machinery over electoral governing as he might have thought that a sound trained civil bureaucracy would solve Pakistans various problems, such as the settlement of refugees etc. (Hussain 2010, 280). The inherited military that was not fully developed at that time, adopted a strategic partnership with the bureaucracy to discover socioeconomic interests (Hussain 2010). Hamza Alvi calls this collaboration bureaucratic-military oligarchy.Bureaucratic-military oligarchy manipulated and installed and barred the politicians and political parties. In 1958, the prospects of the tone-beginninging frequent elections posed a challenge to the supremacy of the bureaucratic-military oligarchy, therefore, it seized power by abolishing the institutions of parliamentary government. Its noteworthy that the constitution was abrogated by ex military man-turned bureaucrat-turned politician Iskandar Mirza. And Later, commandant in Chief Ayub caravan inn assumed power.But, at this juncture the bureaucratic-military oligarchy occupied politicians to extract legitimacy from the masses and in the 1962 spoof democratic politics under Ayub Khans system of Basic Democracy was introduced. Ayub Khan resigned in 1969 simply left the reins of power securely in the hands of the bureaucratic-military oligarchy. President Yahya Khan promised restoration of constitutional government and an election was held in December 1970 which terminate in the political crisis which culminated in t he secession of Bangladesh.AssessmentsThe cross examining of colonial and post colonial state apparatus of Pakistan, depicts that it was a failure of politicians and political parties quite than the weakness of three exploiting bourgeoisie classes to avoid the supremacy of bureaucracy and military.It is as well app arnt that there was not continuity in the bureaucracys principal role in post colonial state apparatus. Ironically, the political leadership itself invited the bureaucracy to adopt the role of the principal actor.Hence, it can be concluded that the Hamza Alvis overdeveloped thesis is null and void on the basis of two arguments. First, he miscalculated the role of the military in the colonial era that makes the basis of his theory ambiguous. Second, patronage his emphasis there was no continuity in the key role of bureaucracy and military in a post colonial state apparatus that makes his thesis illogical.Overview Of Personality gentlesist Theorist Carl RogersOverview Of Personality Humanist Theorist Carl RogersCarl Rogers (1902-1987) humanist theorist is best remembered for his nondirective method of therapy. His approach was base on a customer-centered form of clinical work. He believed that a cosmos basic foundation was that of good and positivistic features. Rogers theory suggests that people drive to achieve their fullest effectiveness if un stayed. A trained therapist should only be involved with an someone that is willing to participate in the therapeutic process. This piece will review the theories that Rogers favored and how his research impacted the field of psychology.Rogers was innate(p) into a conservative family in a Chicago suburb. His early studies include agricultural, seminary and social philosophy. While pursuing his seminary studies he similarly took psychology courses at a nearby associate school. As his studies progressed he became frustrated with religion and more captivated with psychology. With the influence o f psychology instructors he chose to transfer to the affiliated school to pursue his doctorate in clinical psychology where he first encountered Freudian thinking. Like Freud, Rogers became a clinician. However, his strategies in therapy were far different.In the early years of Rogers clinical and laboratory work he was frustrated with the then established forms of psychotherapy. Kirschenbaum (2004) noted that Rogers was impressed at how strong the human will is and how patients will resist even the most skillful therapist interventions when it goes against their purposes or they have not chosen to change themselves. Rogers had become introduce with relationship therapy from students of Otto Rank, whose focus was on the patients self-insight and self-acceptance at bottom the therapeutic relationship (Kirschenbaum). In 1939, Rogers published his first book, The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child. This publication launched his biography and gave him the opportunity to start com municating his give views on counseling and psychotherapy. this instant students of Rogers were asking what his views on counseling and psychotherapy were. By 1942 Rogers published those views in his second book, Counseling and Psychotherapy Newer Concepts in Practice. But Rogers pice de rsistance was the publishing the work that defined his place in psychological therapeutic theory, Client-Centered Therapy Its Current Practice, Implications, and Theory, in 1951.Rogers received many awards throughout his life. He was the president for the American Association for Applied Psychology (1944-1945), of the American psychological Association (APA) (1946-1947), and of the APAs Division of Clinical and Abnormal Psychology (1949-1950) and he was the first president of the newly formed American Academy of Psychotherapists (1956). He remained supple in his work until his death in 1987. It was poignant to note that on the day of his death, February 4, 1987, a letter occurd to inform Rogers that he had been nominated for the Nobel tranquillity Prize.Improving the strategies of psychotherapy was in truth important to Rogers. As a therapist he worked very hard to comprehend concepts available to him. As he began his practice he looked to improve the guest-centered process, thereby lending to the phylogenesis of the guest-centered approach, also called person-centered psychotherapy. Rogers association with Sigmund Freud was short-lived and his similarity lies in their primary focus was clinical work. B. F. Skinner and Rogers agreed that they wanted to try approximately the same typeface of person in the future (Hergenhahn and Olson, 2007, p. 455) but Skinner argued that their differences were in the methods they were choosing to arrive at that future-behaviorism versus humanism. In addition, Rogers and George Kelly a akin believed that humans sought, and were capable of, better personalised . . . conditions (p. 408).There were several events in Rogers early studies a nd manageer that affected the development of his nondirective method of therapy. One of the earliest was that of watching his children grow up. Hergenhan and Olson (2007) discussed an early interrogatory of Rogers saying observing his children grow up taught him far more around individuals, their development, and their relationships than he could ever have lettered professionally (p. 440). In pursuit of his PhD. Rogers disciplineed that the psychoanalytic approach was often unproductive. The one event, however, according to Kirschenbaum (2004), that seemed to influence his historically noteworthy psychotherapeutic discovery happened while trying to help a mother find a solution to her delinquent sons behavior. Rogers theory that this mothers rejection of her son was the cause of his delinquency was met with no resolution. At the time that they agreed that they had both(prenominal) tried and failed, she queried Rogers about whether he took adults for counseling as well as youth s. When he responded with assent, she asked for help for herself. It was this recognize that Rogers realized that it was the client that knew the direction in which therapy should latch on. Kirschenbaum quotes Rogers saying that it began to occur to me that unless I had a need to demonstrate my receive cleverness and learning, I would do better to rely on the client for the direction of movement in the therapeutic process.Additionally, it was at this point in Rogers speculative progression that he encountered Alfred Adler from which he learned that a therapist could learn more by determining how the patient relates to the here and now (Hergenhan and Olson, 2007, p. 441), quite than focusing the patients history. Boeree (2006) commented on Rogers theories of fulfillment and satisfaction of the needs of all vivification organisms, even that of plant life-that it is in the nature of all life to drop down effort to reach a definitive potential. He further say that People . . . i n the course of actualizing their potentials, created society and culture. In and of itself, thats not a problem . . . But when we created culture, it developed a life of its own. Confessing that culture is not in itself evil, Boeree noted that culture for the most part has helped humankind exit and prosper, but at the same time it may have caused to hinder a persons self-fulfillment.Alfred Adlers concept of striving for superiority was a forerunner of Rogers tracing of the incongruent self. Rogers believed that people, even infants, when given the chance, will choose what is best for them (Hergenhahn and Olson, 2007, p. 443). This is tie in to Rogers method of Organismic Valuing Process. He believed that experience was the authority on the development personality. Rogers was noted as saying that Neither the Bible nor the prophets-neither Freud nor research-neither the revelations of God nor man-can take precedence over my own experience (p. 444). Rogers optimistic view of the human personality development fostered his belief that humans strive to coercively upgrade their own experience. He believed that experience took authority over all else, and so he pardoned persons that acted negatively attributing it to fear and defensiveness. Negative behavior was not in accordance with nature. Rogers believed that even those who acted out of fear and defensiveness had strong verifying tendencies at deep levels which needed to be discovered. jibe to Hergenhahn and Olsen, the positive tendency Rogers was speech production of was the actualizing tendency (p.443).According to Rogers, actualizing tendency is the driving force as contradictory to Freuds instincts as the driving force behind personality. Using actualizing tendency, humans pronounce their experiences with the organismic valuing process. This process, Rogers believed was within each human. It is sanctioned by a persons own senses. Other in the environment can de prize and even reject an individual s personal valuing process. When that occurs, many adopt other values to please external sources and the self-actualization goal is stunted. Cooper (2003) suggests this leaves the individual adapting to ideas and values conceived by others and thereby disunite mingled with what should be a fluid and malleable process, maximizing their final development, and the rigid concepts of others. This can be particularly precarious because as Pesci narratei (1996) suggests a person that is self-accepting is more accepting of others. That being the case, the individual may be overly influenced by the ideas of others, corrupting their personal fulfillment. Further, Cooper indicated that with Rogers and other humanitarian psychologists the resolution came with reconnecting with the individual experience process. This process could be accomplished with Rogers nondirective, client-centered therapy that uses empathy, peremptory positive regard and congruence (p. 96).In Rogers phenomenologica l reality, Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) noted that the subjective humankind determines the behavior of people. When the environment interrupts the positive developmental process that takes place naturally, the individual misses experiences that enhance the self-concept that is positively valued and prepares for the emergence of the self. When an event or experience enters a persons awareness it becomes symbolized according to Rogers (p.444). Pescitelli (1996) commented on the value of an individual realizing their fullest potential and agreed that there needed to be an internal agreement within the individual and that the human capacity for awareness and the ability to symbolize gives us enormous power . . . but he also advised that care be taken, because if the self-awareness is distorted, then the growth may be unstable.Critical to Rogers person-centered approach to therapy is the clients receiving love, care, respect and acceptance from persons that are important the individuals life is the need for positive regard. People want to feel appreciated by the people that are most important to them. In the work of Rogers (1979), he stated that each individual has within him or herself vast resources for self-understanding, for altering the self-concept, basic attitudes, and his or her self-directed behavior. . . and that three conditions needed to exist to foster a growth-promoting modality in any situation which development of the person is the goal, (1) congruence, (2) unconditional positive regard, and (3) empathetic understanding. Incongruency occurs when people stop using their organismic valuing process. When people hurt their sense of value, they begin to lean on society to make choices for them. This is when society begins to determine value over what their internal value system should tell them. Their frame of reference belongs to someone else. This is the first condition that Rogerss suggested was important mingled with the therapist and the client-c ongruence. A genuineness and realness is imperative on the part of the therapist for the client to excel in their growth potential. Secondly, the unconditional positive regard was the means in which the therapist demonstrates acceptance of the clients climate at that moment. Moments change, attitudes change and the therapist needs to show nonpossessive sic caring (Rogers, 1979) for the client to flourish. Rogers believed that unconditional positive regard was an essential ingredient of psychotherapy (Hergenhahn and Olson, 2007, p 450). Thirdly, the antecedent of the qualified therapist is achievement of empathetic understanding. It is vital that the therapist be so attuned to the client that they can clarify not only the meanings of which the client is aware but even those just below the level of awareness. According to Rogers, this was the ability to listen with real understanding, true empathy (1979).One noteworthy event that Rogers participated in was a television set recording of an interview with a client, Gloria. This video recording was one of a three part film series comparing three forms of psychotherapy (1) Client-centered by Carl Rogers, (2) Gestalt by Frederick Perls, and (3) Rational emotional by Albert Ellis. The client-centered approach ended with remarks by Rogerss interview with Gloria whereas, in essence, he was moved by the process that Gloria progressed through in her efforts of self-discovery starting with her explanation of her past and moving into her current situation. The evidence was demonstrated by Rogers-the value of the establishing the proper climate for the exchange of training, the genuineness of the therapist and the showing of empathy. These measures gave an observable impact on Gloria (Psychological Films, 1965). A study by Wickman and Campbell (2003) investigated the session between Rogers and Gloria. The study attested to the result of the client-centered approach that Rogers employed. It genuinely made a difference in how Gloria mat up about herself, when they reported that she made the control Rogers had helped me to recognize my potential-my value as a human being gives assent to that concept. Additionally, Rogerss demonstration of empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard during the session helped Gloria see that she could be her own agent of change.As far as the digest of Rogers work and impact on current psychotherapy is concerned, the overall appetite of all type of therapy is that of taking care of the patient. In many cases, as Rogerss work showed it is that the patient that knows simply what is causing them trouble. The work of the client-centered therapist is to take away into the patients comments and to help them to uncover a workable solution to their problem on their own. The trained therapist should have the tools to help them to do so.Rogerss concept is very simplistic. There are occasions where a patient or client may have some physical limitation or mental illness that inhibits the progression to achieving a fully functioning person, i.e., schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder, obsessive positive disorder and others. Therapy alone may not be the solution, but therapy with medical specialty may bring the patient very close. Hergenhahn and Olson (2007) observed that Rogers also felt strongly that a when person that does what truly feels good that is the best incline for action (p.462). They also remarked that Rogers said little about the developmental experiences that are conducive to healthy growth.I would posit that talk-therapy like what was demonstrated by Rogers with the patient Gloria is a very effective strategy for someone like me. Intelligent, functioning persons that lack in positive self-esteem or reinforcement, eudaemonia when tactical questions and conversational techniques like those of Rogers are used. It is also noteworthy that Rogers form of psychotherapy is still plain in the work of psychologists today. What is person ally evident is that there are numerous therapeutic strategies available to psychologists that are positioned to help persons effectively grow and prosper in this fast-paced society that surrounds humankind today. The path that has been laid and that is being laid is vast. Personalities are challenging to decipher and it takes a psychologist willing to learn about and assimilate the plethora of information and patterns of therapy available to them to be able to benefit the many which ultimately becomes the few.