Tuesday, March 12, 2019
The Socio-Cultural Effects of Technology on Society
Group research paper The Socio-Cultural Effects of engineering on Society Technology and society or applied science and refinement quote to the recurring co-dependence, co-influence, co-production of technology and society upon the other (technology upon culture, and vice-versa) (Websters lexicon 5060). at that place atomic number 18 an extraordinary number of showcases how science and technology has helped us that butt joint be seen in society instantly. whizz great example is the smooth phone. Ever since the invention of the telephone society was in guide of a to a greater ex cristalt portable device that they could affair to talk to hatful.This gamy demand for a new product led to the invention of the mobile phone, which did, and still do, greatly influence society and the air people recognise their alive(p)s. Now many people ar accessible to talk to whomever they involve no matter where any of the two people are. All these shortsighted changes in mobile phone s, like Internet access, are further examples of the troll of co-production. Societys need for being able to c only on people and be available e rattlingwhere resulted in the research and development of mobile phones.They in turn influenced the way we live our lives. As the populace relies to a greater extent and more on mobile phones, additional features were requested. This is to a fault true with to twenty-four hourss red-brick media player. Society similarly determined the changes that were made to the previous multiplication media player that the manuf functionures positive. Take for example, todays media players. At the beginning, cassettes were being apply to store data. However, that method was stupendous and cumber rough so the manufactures developed ram disks, which were sm bother and could go more data.Later, compact disks were again likewise large and did not hold enough data that forced todays manufactures to create MP3 players, which are small and holds large summation of data. Todays society determined the course of events that many manufactures took to improving their products so todays consumers will purchase their products. Looking back into ancient history, economic science can be tell to keep up arrived on the scene when the occasional, self-generated exchange of goods and services began to occur on a less(prenominal) occasional, less spontaneous basis.It probably did not organize long for the harborr of arrowheads to regard that he could probably do a lot better by concentrating on the gift of arrowheads and barter for his other needs. Clearly, regardless of the goods and services bartered, some amount of technology was involvedif no more than in the making of shell and bead jewelry. Even the shamans potions and sacred objects can be said to view as involved some technology. So, from the actually beginnings, technology can be said to have spurred the development of more e takeate economies.In the current founding, superior technologies, resources, geography, and history give rise to robust economies and in a well-functioning, robust economy, economic excess inbredly flows into greater use of technology. More everywhere, because technology is such(prenominal) an inseparable part of gentlemans gentleman society, especially in its economic aspects, funding sources for (new) proficient endeavors are virtually illimitable. However, while in the beginning, technological investment involved little more than the era, efforts, and skills of one or a few men, today, such investment may involve the collective labor and skills of many millions.Technology has frequently been driven by the military, with many redbrick applications being developed for the military before being adapted for civilian use. However, this has always been a two-way flow, with industry often taking the baksheesh in developing and adopting a technology that is only later(prenominal) adoptive by the military. Winston (2003) pr ovides an excellent summary of the respectable implications of technological development and deployment. He states there are four major ethical implications Challenges traditional ethical norms.Because technology jolts relationships among individuals, it challenges how individuals deal with each other, even in ethical ways. nonpareil example of this is challenging the definition of human life as somatic by debates in the areas of abortion, euthanasia, capital punishment, etc. , which all involve modern technological developments. Creates an aggregation of set up. One of the greatest problems with technology is that its detrimental effectuate are often small, unless cumulative.Such is the case with the pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels in automobiles. Each individual automobile creates a very small, almost negligible, amount of pollution, however the cumulative effect could possibly conduce to the global warming effect. Other examples take accumulations of che mical pollutants in the human body, urbanization effects on the environment, etc. A Lancaster dropping bundles of 4lb bring to blend inher incendiaries (left), 30lb incendiaries and a cookie (right) Changes the distribution of justice.In essence, those with technology tend to have higher access to justice systems. Or, justice is not distributed equally to those with technology versus those with step forward. Provides great indicant. Not only does technology amplify the ability, and hence the strength, of humans, it also provides a great strategic advantage to the human(s) who hold the greatest amount of technology. Consider the strategic advantage gained by having greater technological innovations in the military, pharmaceuticals, calculating machines, etc.For example, Bill Gates has considerable influence (even outside of the computer industry) in the course of human affairs due to his successful effectuation of computer technology. Lifestyle In many ways, technology simplifi es life. * The rise of a leisure class * A more informed society,which can make quicker responses to events and trends * Sets the stage for more complex learning t have a bun in the ovens * Increases multi-tasking (although this may not be simplifying) * Global net twisting * Creates denser social circles * Cheaper prices * Greater specialization in jobs In other ways, technology complicates life. Pollution is a serious problem in a technologi birdcally advanced society (from acid rain to Chernobyl and Bhopal) * The adjoin in transportation technology has brought congestion in some areas * new-sprung(prenominal) forms of danger existing as a consequence of new forms of technology, such as the first generation of nuclear reactors * wise forms of entertainment, such as video games and internet access could have possible social effects on areas such as academic performance * Increased hazard of some diseases and disorders, such as obesity * Social separation of noteworthy human in teraction.Technology has increased the need to talk to more people faster. * Structural unemployment * Anthropocentric climate change Institutions and groups Technology often enables organizational and bureaucratic group structures that otherwise and heretofore were simply not possible. Examples of this indicatorfulness include * The rise of very large organizations e. g. , governments, the military, wellness and social welfare institutions, supranational corporations. * The commercialization of leisure sports events, products, etc. McGinn) * The almost instantaneous airing of information (especially news) and entertainment around the ground. International Technology enables greater association of international issues, determine, and cultures. Due mostly to mass transportation and mass media, the world seems to be a very much smaller place, due to the following, among others * Globalization of ideas * Embeddings of values * Population growth and control Environment Technolo gy provides an understanding, and an appreciation for the world around us.The effects of technology on the environment are two transparent and subtle. The more obvious effects include the depletion of nonrenewable natural resources (such as petroleum, coal, ores), and the added pollution of air, water, and land. The more subtle effects include debates over long-term effects (e. g. , global warming, deforestation, natural habitat destruction, coastal wetland loss. ) One of the main problems is the lack of an effective way to remove these pollutants on a large scale expediently.In character, organisms recycle the wastes of other organisms, for example, plants produce type O as a by-product of photosynthesis, and oxygen-breathing organisms use oxygen to metabolize food, producing speed of light dioxide as a by-product, which plants use in a process to make sugar, with oxygen as a waste in the first place. No such mechanism exists for the removal of technological wastes. Humanity at the irregular may be compared to a colony of bacteria in a Petri dish with a constant food supply with no way to remove the wastes of their metabolism, the bacteria eventually poison themselves. Spook Country introduces us to the interesting world of information immersion through the eyes of Hollis Henry, a former rock band- Curfews musician and the lead character in the newfangled. She is confident and ambitious. She quit her band because she was not making enough funds for living, so she decided to start her career as a journalist. She genuinely started writing when she was little, even before she became a rock band member. It was obvious that she had a passion for writing.Holliss job is very complicated, she has to untangle all the mysterious things and find out information for the Node magazine which does not really exist yet. Hollis searches for a strange container throughout the entire myth and when she finally finds it in the end, she discovers that the container is ulti mately filled with U. S. Government Money, One one hundred million dollars. In a set of fake pallets, along the floor. somewhat fourteen inches deep. Little over a ton of U. S. hundreds (Gibson 337). This makes her become a possible target for a Chinese / Cuban group emotional state on tagging the money with Cesium.She starts in Los Angeles and ends up in Vancouver. Henrys assignment is to interview locative art specialist Bobby Chombo, who took his last mark from a computer program which, according to the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group, provides a set of tools for implementing finite difference methods for the solution of partial differential equations on block-structured adaptively refined rectangular grids. Bobby is a computer geek with a captivation for the intersection of virtual space and real space. He specializes in geospatial technologies.He got into locative art after a career working navigational systems for the US military, and uses his expertise to place works of art on a VR grid mapped over real cities and t causes. In my opinion, Gibsons story is not only about locative art and how weird our world is neat he also has the good graces to give us a pick out story, which deals with the ubiquity of information in a different way. Agent chocolate-brown and his captive junkie Russian translator, Milgrim, are on the tail of a Cuban-Chinese Spetsnaz-trained ninja believed (rightly) by the US government to be smuggling information to an un shaftn region entity for an unknown purpose. brownness relies on satellite information to track him, other nod to the ubiquity of information, and keeps Milgrim in the dark about his actual crosstie and intent. Milgrim experiences a big shock in his life as he boards a Jet stream to Vancouver. He looses his mind completely which has neer happened to him before. Prior to boarding a Jet stream, he was excited to get his hair and makeup done in Washington, DC free by Browns attache. Later in the novel, Milg rim crashes car in an taste to kill Tito but he manages to escape and steals Hollis Henrys cup of tea which contains five thousand dollares given to her by proxy from a stagnant band mate, heroin overdose, Jimmy Carlyle. by and by all these activities are over, Milgrim wakes up in a nice bed with a nice nut breakfast next to him. As a drug addict, he is very calm and focused on what he is doing. He works with Brown very closely, their relationship is more like Brown takes control of everything and gives orders to Milgrim. They work in New York in the beginning. Milgrim is a prisoner of the world of information.In Spook Country, Gibsons use of these three characters in concert, lets the story of Tito, Brown and Milgrim, and Hollis construct to a conclusion which amounts to a great big middle feel to the war in Iraq. Gibson has illustrated characters looking, literally, for their place in the world, and they have shown that the world we live in today did not turn out to be the fantast paradise we might have wanted, validating our inevitable escape into the digital. No flying cars, no magic pill hamburgers, and no pocket computers, but works of art that we can only see if we are tiring virtual reality goggles, standing on a particular lane corner. randomness is all around us, rather than a thing into which we chisel in ourselves. The topics that I researched were the Santeria theology, Ochun, the field hostage chest (NSA), and the term great rake brother. These topics were all related in the novel Spook Country by William Gibson. Technology played a big a part in the plot from robots to cell phones to computers. Information as commodity was also a major influence in this novel with the use of Ipods, newspapers, and surveillance cameras. The characters depended gossamer on all these items as tools of survival.I will discuss the history, the development, and impact among the Santeria theology, Ochun, the subject security measure delegacy (NSA ) and the term Big buddy. Santeria (also know as La Regla Lucumi) is a combination of the West African Yoruba religion and Catholicism. The Way of the Saints, Santeria or as the descendants of the Afro-Caribbean tradition in Cuba prefers to call it. Santeria rather overemphasizes the Catholic elements in the religion, which was essentially an African phantasmal path, developed by their ancestors (www. african holocaust. net).They attempted to covert Africans but while they certain the teaching they found it did not provide religious fulfillment. They go along to practice their own rituals which they found was useful and effective, most importantly, filled the spiritual void in their lives. It was brought to Cuba originally by the African slaves who were brought by the Spaniards to that island. Santeria believes in one creator, one All Mighty God (Olorun Olodumare), who created the other semi-gods or entities called Orishas, to deal with every facet of human life a nature itself .They interceded in on our behalf just as the Catholic saints intercede. Although the African slaves were not allowed to express their religion freely they had to disguise their gods, with those of the slave owners (www. santeriaspells. com) below is a small list (marked with an asterisk) what are called the Seven African Powers 1. Olodumare (God Almighty) 2. * Ellegua (Sant Anthony of Padua) 3. * Obatala (La Virgen de Las Mercedes) 4. * Yemaya (La Virgen de Regla) 5. * Chango (Santa Barbara) 6. * Oya (Santa Therese de Jesus) 7. * Ochun (Las Caridad del Cobre) 8. * Ogun (San Pedro)In the Santeria religion Eleggua is the shop steward of the roads and the world. Eleggua is the gatekeeper that stands in the path of life and celestial grounds. Ellegua is an Orisha (spirit) associated with opening the ways, or crossroads. Often depicted as a child or a small man, he is playful and a trickster god. During the ceremonies worshippers would often have a cement head this is unconnected of t he ritual A cement head with a metal bar in the top, and cowrie shells for eyes and mouth, as a representation of Ellegua which receives offerings and protects in return (wikipedia. org).The Babalu Aye is the Orisha name for St. Lazarus it means Father of the World he is usually referred to the Father of the World. His coloring materials are brown, black and purple. His number is 17 his symbols are two dogs and crutches. He is portrayed dressed in burlap. He is offered unobjectionable wine, popcorn, sesame seed candy and a variety of grains, beans, and seeds. Many Cubans hold a vigil starting the night of December 16th. They get unitedly and light candles and make offerings to Babulu Aye and wait for him to arrive at midnight. Come midnight they ask for San Lazaro to watch over them nd keep them and their families safe and healthy. Today, December 17, is Babalu Aye day in the Afro-Cuban religion (www. babalublog. com). In Cuban Santeria, Oshun (sometimes spelled Ochun or Ochun) is the goddess of love, of money and thence of happiness. She brings all the good things of life (www. angelfire. com). This goddess is adorned with jewelry she speaks to one of her birds, the parrot. She is the goddess of cherubic water, she is found near fresh water, at rivers, ponds, and especially waterfalls. Offerings are sometimes left at the waterfalls for her.Ochun loves to dance and make merry but she does have a serious side. Many offerings are sometimes left for her at the waterfalls. Many ceremonies are located at the river (www. angelfire. com). Her favorite day of the workweek is Saturday and the number she is associated with is 5 (wkipedia. org). Its been known that she had to sell her body in order to feed her children and the other Orishas came and took her children away. Oshun went insane from heartache and became depress. She wore the same bloodless dress everyday it turns yellow over time.A gentleman by the name of Aje-Shaluga, another Orsiha, they fell in l ove while she was rinse her dress. He supplied her with money, and gems that he gathered from the bottom of the river. They became married and she was reunited with her children again. Ochun has played a great role in Cuban history, revealing herself as the unadulterated Mary to three copper miners caught in a storm at sea in the seventeenth century and also assisted Cuban soldiers, who sewed portraits of her in their uniforms, during the second war of emancipation in 1895.Ochun has been called La Virgin Mambisa, in commemoration of her fierceness in participationing for the independence of Cuba Castros Movement the 26th of July used the colors red and black, which are the colors of Eleggua (www. african holocaust. net). This religion welcomes all doctors, lawyers, politicians, thieves and pimps. All those who seek the power to control their own lives and want to lead them in accord with the deepest part of their beings are candidates for initiation into Santeria. This religion seems to be an open one that accepts all races there is no discrimination within this religion.Santeria is a religion of trance, mystery, possession, blood and sex. If you want to know more, go to the ceremonies, burn the candles and dance to the drums. Skin color or language is no barriers. The ancient gods will recognize their own (www. Moonweb/Santeria/Intor. html). The subject field credentials Agency (NSA) was created in November 1952 provided fall in States decision makers and leaders for more than 50 years (The Shadow Factory The Ultra-Secret NSA form 9/11 to the eavesdropping on America. ).The NSA is the largest, most secretive, and most powerful intelligence commission in the world. With a staff of thirty-eight thousand people, it dwarfs the Central wisdom Agency (CIA) in budget, manpower, and influence (Body of Secrets Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret national Security Agency). Cryptologists located the foundation of the critical role of all major conflicts In 1956, the general Canine enlisted the help of an outside management firm to examine the powers problems. The consultants recommended a complete change.The repercussions, according to a later home(a) Security Agency (NSA) report, lasted more than thirty years. Signals intelligence would be nonionized according to target-countries China and Communist Asia and so on. Each of the section would include specific disciplines, such as cryptanalysis and traffic analysis (42). On November 23, 1956, Ralph Canine walked out of subject Security Agency for the last time as Director. A message from Howard Campaigme I was surprised to learn later that the people above him didnt think nearly as much of him as we did. Mr.Canine made a tremendous impression (43). There efforts of the use of radio intercept, radio directional finding, and processing capabilities gave United States and its assort a unique advantage in World War I. (www. nsa. gov/History. com). The use of the Radio intercept in the National Security Agency was a vital tool often used in tracking the view of planes, missiles and also served as a communication tool for the pilots. For Years American intercept operators in Turkey had eavesdropped on Soviet radiolocation installations as they tracked the occasional U-2 over flight.But because the spy planes flew far too high for either Russian MIGs or their SA-2 surface-to-air missiles, they were out of harms way. It was like throwing a rock at a passing jetliner. This time, however, something was different something was very wrong Hes tour left the American heard a Soviet pilot shout. A few moments later the intercept operators watched the U-2 suddenly disappear from Russian radar screens near Sverdlovsk (49). The United States spends a lot of money to protect its National Security, in 2007 $572. 4 gazillion dollars on national defence mechanism.In 2004 $456 billion dollars was counted for. The occur estimated budget for 2007 was $2. 7 trillion dollars. Most expensi ve components of National defense were the cost for development and testing new highly advanced(a) military equipment such as aircraft, ships, and submarines. Spending on Natl defense spiked during World War II. , reaching nearly 90% of the nations total outlays. (National Security The Information Series on Current Topics). The National Security Agency is oversea of several federal agencies United States Department of refutation (DOD) United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) certain components After the folk 11, 2001 terrorist attacks law makers quickly put together a new law designed to help the US fight the terrorist threat. The new law that was implemented was the Patriot Act which stands for The Uniting and strengthen America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required Intercepting and Obstructing Terrorism (Terrorism- Premeditated, politically cause personnel perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clan destine agents. (USA PATRIOT) Act of 2001. The act consists of ten titles rubric I. Enhancing Domestic Security against Terrorism (Terrorism- Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents). ennoble II. Enhanced Surveillance Procedures, ennoble III. International Money Laundering Abatement and Anti-terrorist Financing Act of 2001, title of respect IV. Protecting the boarder, Title V. Removing Obstacles to Investigating Terrorism, Title VI. Providing for Victims of Terrorism, Public Safety Officers, and Their Families, Title VII. Increased Information Sharing For Critical Infrastructure Protection Title VIII. Strengthening the Criminal Laws against Terrorism, Title IX. Improved Intelligence, Title X. Miscellaneous. One of the purposes of the act is to facilitate better cooperation and information sharing between government agencies, oddly between the IC and law enforcement agencies (Nat ional Security The Information Series on Current Topics). In 2002 Congress and President George W. Bush created the National commitment on Terrorist Attacks on the United States to investigate all the circumstances relating to the terrorist attacks.This probe resulted in For nearly two years the commission reviewed relevant documents and interviewed more than one thousand people as part of its investigation. In 2004 their findings were publish in the 9/11 Commission Report (National Security The Information Series on Current Topics). The term Big buddy came from a fictional character in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. The novel was about a dictator of Oceania, a totalitarian state take to its utmost logical consequence. This is where the ruling elite (The Party) wield total power for its own sake over the inhabitants.The term Big fellow is caused to refer to any ruler or government that invades the privacy of its citizens (www. barleby. com). Big Brother physical app earance is of Joseph Stalin or Lord Kitchener. His moustache is also corresponding to Adolf Hitler. After researching there was a lot of information that I acquire about the Santeria religion, Ochun, the National Security Agency and the term Big Brother. I learned the history of the Santeria religion, the Seven African Powers, the gate keeper Eleggua, the Father of the World Babalu Aye.I read about The National Security Agency development and its functions within the Agency. I also discovered the induce of the term Big Brother affect this term had on the government. After reading the novel Spook Country by William Gibson the topics that I can relate to are the National Security Agency and the term Big Brother. The event that affects me the most is the bombing of the Twin Towers on September 11. From this event security has increased in airports, on planes, trains, subway stations, buses, malls, schools and also inside Federal Government and other buildings.The term Big Brother i s watching you are related also to today because of the September eleventh terrorist attack, which brings this term to real life Someone is Watching You. The National Security Agency has made it a top priority to keep the United States a safe and secured country for everyone. Work Cited Applied Numerical Algorithms Group. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California. 2007. 8 Nov. 2008 http//seesar. lbl. gov/anag/. Bamford, James. Body of Secrets Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency From the Cold War through the Dawn of a New Century.New York Doubleday, 2008. Becker, Ernest. The Structure of Evil. An Essay on the Unification of the Science of Man. New York G. Braziller. 1968. Evans Masters, Kim. National Security The Information Series on Current Topics. Wylie, Texas Information Plus, 2007. Langone, John. National Geographics How Things Work Everyday Technology Explained. Washington, D. C. National Geographic Society, 1999. Technology, policy, ethics, and public health a select bibliography Tavani, H. T. Technology and Society Magazine, IEEE Vol. 19, Issue 3 (2000) 26 34.