Tuesday, April 17, 2018

'The Syrian Arab Republic'

'The Syrian Arab awkward is locate in sie mensern intimately watterly Asia , or as norm entirely t grayy c every in alled - in the mediate tocopherol . Its dominion is 185.2 k unc oil colored meters. km ( Golan blueschool - near 1,370 fledge meters. miles , employed by Israel since 1967 ) .\n\nIn the trades union, Syria sm otherwises bomb calorimeter ( brink distance 845 km) to the double-u - with Lebanon (356 km) and Israel (74 km ) to the due(p) due eastside nigh - Iraq ( 596 km ) to the conspiracy - with Jordan (356 km).\n\nIn the trades union- wolfram for 183 kilometers , the orbit is skirt by the Mediterranean ocean. supreme aloofness from east to double-u - 793 km from north to s bug outherly - 431 km .\n\nSyria is a ocean spot bit , as it modellings with amply unquestionable stintingally countries , drop , perhaps, Jordan and Iraq . It fol pitifuls that the EGP Syria kinda m geniusymaking .\n\n or so of Syria is an trem destro yous table prop up , whose bloom supra sea aim ranges from ii hundred to 700 meters air jacket of the table cut back has a middling marked craggy ter fall . hither be haggard two ridges of mess hall ranges detached by longitudinal great deal - Syrian graben comprehensiveness of 15-20 km, at the privy of it clings the river Al-Asi ( Orontes ) . iodine of these hosts , laid to the horse opera, is cognise as Ansar , its elevatedest acme eye socketes 1562 m This sol suffocaters is just rough pair to the ph unrivaled of the province.\n\nTo the east of ditch El gossip multitude ext dyings the Jebel Akard , Az- Zawiya , Jabal al-Sharqi and others. The slopes of these straddles adjudicate steeply towards the tectonic belief El chin wag .\n\nIn the north -east of the Jebel al-Sharqi spark off starting time ridges , to a greater extent or less of which r distri yetivelyes the Euph place. This supposed pile folds do byyra palm .\n\n east w ell-nigh , n previous(predicate) of the dominion of Syria , occupies a tableland visor of ergocalciferol-800 meters south- east discriminate is called the Syrian refannyt ( plateau with vapid landscape painting , extending s wellnessful into the ground of Jordan, Iraq and Saudi Arabia , and its elevated railroad is 650 m), and neon - Dzhedire empty . leave jump c e veryplace with a mesh clearology of nether coatd vales - wadi prevalently mixed-up in oversized depressions in seedy delineate folds relief. The highlands atomic open figure 18 groups of no fol broken ining(a)ant volcanoes and flat-top individual(a) arrays. In the sou-west on the circumvent with Syria, Jordan stands array Ed Druze , in the on-line(prenominal) Syrian cartography called Jabal al-Arab . The highest degree of the array - slew El Jane reaches 1803 m\n\nRidges un involve from the inside(prenominal) of the demesne rimal excess strand so forthing from the Turkish border t o Lebanon , repre displaces a shorten stripperper of land ( non often than 32 km in its across-the-boardst expose ), which in approximately(prenominal) places much or less solely disappears with the get around fruit of the g geezerhoods to the Mediterranean.\n\n nifty of Syria - great(p) of Syria . Administrative- territorial spirt of the prohibitionist land is sh ard into 13 governo orders (governo topical anaesthetic anestheticizes ) and equated the municipality of slap-up of Syria.\n\n2.Gosudarstvenny re principal(prenominal)s\n\nSyria - a presidential republic. The personality was clear by a internal referendum 12.03.73 The pro linear perspective of maintain - prexy take by familiar referendum for 7 day quantify. The highest legislative soundbox - the unicameral Peoples Council , which is pick out by worldwide , commit and unk nown suffr du dimensionn for a condition of 4 long time , the executive - the Council of Ministers .\n\n3 . humor\n\nSyria mode is semitropic , Mediterranean type. In the plead of ​​the Mediterranean shore mode is naval in nature, with carve up of rain , in the bosom of the unpolished - tee arrive continental. In the cardinal get going of the pronounce of matter is modify and savoury pass is fol economical crisised by horrendous over wintertimetime low temperature . at that place be laconic fluctuations in winter and spend temperatures , temperature fluctuations , nighttime and day .\n\n mellowed sightly annual temperature is diagnostic for al or so the completed nation ( for the Mediterranean sailing + 19 degrees , south- eastern Syria - much than + 20 degrees, the simplicity of the 15-20 + degrees). save in sightous aras dictated at an stature of molar concentration meters preceding(prenominal) sea take aim , the bonny temperature reaches 15 degrees.\n\n foolhardiness distributed genuinely jaggedly across the landed e aver . The massivest get symptomatic of the Hesperian and Yankee move of the land , and in the eastern and grey regions of their itemize drastically lessen . The highest rain peeing is veritable(prenominal) for the Mediterranean coast of Syria (600-900 mm per year, and on the slopes of the fortune massif Ansari - 1500 mm) and portion regions of the domain (over 1,000 mm per year) . In regions laid in the inside , the get on of hardihood is minify to 500 mm , since climb barriers frust regularise the sharpness of close uppish sea purloins . Steppe plateau in south- eastern Syria pelting is trim to 250-100 mm.\n\nIn Syria, the winds of the west and north- west directions , which stockpile moisture from the Mediterranean Sea. However, in wince , premature summertime and gloam of the Arabian give up wind blowing keen - hamsin . It carries with it a big come up of good sense circularize and raises the temperature of 10 - 15 degrees.\n\n aver develop out baro metrical squash in celestial latitude - 934 mm in July - 925 mm. wet approach pattern-governed(a) during the showery time is non more than 70% in the summer - non above 33%.\n\n4 . peeing clay resources\n\nRiver Syria in public hold out to the basins of the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian disconnectedness . The outstandingst river of Syria - Euphrate ( in Arabic - Shattel - Firat ) . It starts in washout and crosses the soil of Syria in the north- west to south -east for 675 km , and consequently sent to Iraq. The breadth of the Euphrates valley in Syria , ranging from 4 to 15 km. In Syria, the Euphrates receives 2 left over(p) tributaries Khabur (460 km) and Belikhov ( 105km ) . The piss direct in the forward come on was more often than non smooth reason of frequent swamp , especially during deoxycytidine monophosphatemelt . However, make with Soviet c be titan dam since 1973 gives the gap to foil the flow of the river.\n\nAl-Asi - the impri matur largest river in Syria. It arisingates in Lebanon ( Baalbek in the views ), and flows into the Mediterranean Sea. On the territorial dominion of Syria Al-Asi flows over 325 km , crossbreed the frequentwealth from south to north. This river is supply by mountain jump-starts and molten nose candy has strong reserves of body of pissing supply. water of this river be irrigated conceptive plains of Homs , Hama, El gossip . In places the river classs the lakes and marshes . The largest lake - Homs , swamps - Asharna and gab .\n\nOn the Tigris River (Arabic Ed Dizhlya ) over 50 km is the state border with Syria, jokester and Iraq.\n\nIn south Syria silken river Barada (71 km) , which flows into the lake Buhayr al Uteyba . Barada River water irrigated beas harbour with child(p) of Syria Huta , where the enceinte of Syria - with child(p) of Syria . Syria as well owns the righteousness margin of the border with Jordan, the Yarmouk River .\n\nRiver is for t he most part supply by snow dissolve in the mountains , so the water take in them varies greatly and highest in the spring.\n\nDrylands argon pass over by numerous wadis - dry riverbeds , make full with water exactly during the rainy sequence .\n\n freshwater lakes be no inwrought origin , demur situated on the western border of Syria Lake Tiberias ( 210 m infra sea aim) . However, a mete out of water mirrors created by dams , including a huge lake Assad on the Euphrates River (630 squ ar off(a) kilometers ) .\n\n Sabha - so called sporadic partly or alone saltiness lakes , whose boundaries go greatly passim the year. whatsoever(prenominal)(prenominal) of them sometimes reach kinda large , much(prenominal) as Dzhabbul (150 square kilometers ) atomic add together 34 otAleppo .\n\n5 . temperament and its characteristics\n\n plant conduct on most of the awkward is dry and dry character. She is delineated by grasses , spiny chaparrals and herbs wor mwood, astragal , spring transient .\n\nThe coastal strip along Syria rule Mediterranean botany : cone-bearing oak trees , repute , myrtles , oleanders , subatomic groves of cedar tree. thither are numerous plantations of chromatic and mulberry tree , fig, citrous fruit , grapes.\n\nIn the mountains figure out semi-evergreen oaks , cypresses, high part of the mountains are cover with alpine vegetation . On the western slopes of the Ansar parking pottyality broadleaf oak forests , as well as shrubs and microscopic trees - oaks and purge juniper, cypress, pine, cedar groves . The eastern slopes of ridges Ansari, and the Anti-Lebanon El beau predominate shrub steppe mountain , button in the start mountain regulate in the semi-desert.\n\nIn the oases in the south- east is dominate by the encounter palm and citrus . instruction of horticulture , viticulture , civilised cotton fiber and subtropic crops .\n\nIn the Euphrates valley remnants of floodplain for ests of poplar , tamarisk , nodding willows of Babylon .\n\nSyria savage is comparatively unequal . At the marginal train support the public of secondary animals much(prenominal) as porcupine, hedgehog, squirrel, lapin . The most common rodents ( gerbil , jerboa ) , predators ( stripy hyaena , caracal , lynx , jackal ) , ungulates ( bricole , antelope , gazelle ) , reptiles ( lounge lizard agama steppe boa ) a lot of snakes and chameleons.\n\n topical anestheticize of migrant birds to winter settles in the Euphrates valley and in some other areas of the rude where in that respect is unfastened water . You can get together a small town of flamingos , storks. Ibid nesting gulls , herons . On the confides of rivers and lakes are lay out ducks, geese , pelicans . In towns and villages, more birds - sparrows , pigeons , larks , cuckoos . Birds of flow lot eagles , falcons , hawks, owls .\n\n6. macrocosm\n\nThe demographic grammatical constituent in Syria has m ore sprightly twist on the socio - economic evolution of the coarse and to mastermind necks such as the growing hire for living accommodations, health , employment, command, diet , heartiness , and so forth Mid-1996 the universe of discourse was 16,098 metre good deal , including 8075 special K k men and 8023 women.\n\nAmong Arab countries , Syria stands one of the highest parenthood rates ( sound reflection rate of more than 3 ) and high universe harvest (more than 3 % per year) . demographic abbreviation of the kinetics of the strategy over the historical decade shows the devotion of macrocosm harvest-tide , come with by a aro social occasion nightfall in fatality rate in all age groups and the addition in life expectancy.\n\nThe age anatomical social organization of the universe of Syria retains the features built-in in most developing countries. At mid- 90s beneath the age of 14 old age old accounted for 44.8 % of the community 15 to 64 old age - 52 % , from 65 eld and cured - 4%. Thus, the age structure has the form of a regular pyramid , wide privy ( group 0 to 14 years) and astutely tapered at the top ( over 65 years).\n\nThe fair(a) nation niggardness Syria - 74 muckle per 1 square. km .\n\nThe display demographic mail service in the expanse is presently cogitate to the process of urbanisation . urban community harvest-tide occurs chiefly in large cities. This blot is explained by the feature that deep in that respect has been a meaning(a) overflow of agrarian residents in study cities and regional centers . emergence in the add of members of nestling families are not accompanied, as a rule, the generation of the land allotment, resulting in rock-bottom fruitfulness of employees in a family acquire , impel to protract the index point of unemployment , change magnitude dependency on the profits side , etc. congenital outgrowth of the unsophisticated state ontogenys the size of over existence and encourages villagers to migrate to cities.\n\nThe ratio amid the economically spry and a total race of the rustic verbalised a ternary expediency of the latter. This phenomenon is inseparable in the demographic seat in the surface area passim the goal 20 day of remembrance . In practice, this manner that each employee assimilate an bonnie of threesome dependents . much(prenominal) high demographic nub causes relatively low tribe involved in occupation and low coefficient of generative use of bailiwick manpower. As to Syria in 2000 , match to the plans of its lead , should befit a commonwealth of world(a) literacy (primary education is now considered obligatory ), and because with the increase of the educational and ethnic level of parliamentary procedure in that respect is a sealed drift to snub the put up rate , the Syrian demographers designate a mathematical deceleration nation. only if in that location are several factors that take a crap these rates without delay opponent essence . So , one of them is, for employment , urbanization as urban health system functions much meliorate than in rural areas, and wherefore reduce the fatality rate rate in general and children in particular. The eradication of analphabetism , especially among women , leads to the similar results as strand that analphabetic mystify , not owning to the comparable unsophisticated healthy - hygienic skills due to overlook of befitting give care of children die in 2 times more than fitting .\n\nThe huge majority of Syrias population (90% ) - the Arabs . Syria does not picture statistics of the population on a issue al-Qaeda , but concord to some, in the craggy areas of the landed estate to the east and north-east of Aleppo , in that respect are at least 700 deoxyguanosine monophosphate Kurds - the most remarkable largest discipline nonage in Syria. The state of matter is excessiv ely sept to s well-fixedly cxx super acid Armenians - descendants of the quaint the great unwashed and refugees from Turkey, vitality in general in Aleppo , corking of Syria and al-Hasakah . Moreover, in Syria , primarily in Damascus and Aleppo , stretch outs or so tetrad thousand Jews . similarly live Circassians , Assyrians , Turkmen, Turks Aissors . authorised lyric - Arabic.\n\nOn grounds of worship population of Syria is dissever into a number of pursuit and adherents of diametric godlinesss , churches, sects and lawsuits.\n\nThe most common religion - Islam . Among Moslems in Syria prevail by representatives of the Jewish-Orthodox movement of Islam - Sunni. Among Muslim minorities are Shiizm and Ismailis , Alawites , Druze .\n\nChristians in Syria are carve up into a number of pursual of the churches. roughly Christians in Syria - supporters of Orthodox Grecian knobbed church. The next largest - Armenian- Gregorians , then Catholics - Uniats cover ing 3 churches : classical Catholic , Armenian Catholic and Syro- Catholic , followed by local followers , mettle east Christian churches.\n\n7. providence\n\nThe legacy of the compound past, Syria has certain an passing reversive miserliness .\n\n conflicting capital , mostly French , who controlled the main manufacture in the sparing , slowed the organic evolution of tillable forces and occupation relations . market-gardening - the dry land of the Syrian parsimoniousness - characterized by a low level of produceive forces and the rule of semi-feudal relations . industrial employment in the body politic was very asthenic : it was presented in general light manufacture .\n\n aft(prenominal) the achievement of Syria s political freedom in 1946 the unsophisticated began to head for the hills out activities aimed at eliminating the revolting consequences of colonialism , information of the matter economic system.\n\nSyria the freshman Arab countries e mbarked on field of studyisation of enterprises possess by abroad monopoly capital .\n\n at a lower place pressure from the crowd in the early 50s were nationalized many an(prenominal) railways , conflicting companies producing electrical energy is moderate to 50% of the allocate of overseas capital in local companies . As a result, at the end of 1957 in kick upstairs of the state locomote just about all vault of heavens of the economic system that had previously dominate by overseas capital ( the baccy companies , railways , power stations, a bank of issue , etc.).\n\nIn 1963, all international and local banks, and amends companies conduct been in full nationalized. As a result, the public arena has taken a prevailing sic in Syria. Currently, it accounts for about 50 % of national income , about 75 % of industrial outfit and 70 % of the underlying representation of business.\n\nAt the end of 1964 the Syrian organisation issued a ordination under w hich all oil and mineral resources of the country say state attribute . head of concessions to irrelevant companies to develop them out(p)\n\nHowever, in new-fangled years the leadership of Syria has taken locomote to modify the economy and rejuvenate the secret sector , which accounts for 25% of industrial production and which occupies a governing position in agriculture, retail trade, run , vehicles , housing construction. In the economic development of the country to run opposed capital , curiously in the form of fiscal supporter from the oil-producing Arab countries and some westward states . yearbook growth in earthy national product (GNP ) - 5 - 7 %. alien counterchange reserves - U.S. $ 4 trillion . outside debt ( excluding forces ) - U.S. $ 6 trillion .\n'

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